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STATUARIA ARS.

the silver tetradrachm, but whether it was so used in the flourishing times of Athens is doubtful. [drachma.]

It was also used in reference to weight, appa­rently like the Hebrew shekel and the Latin pondo, in a general sense. The mina (Pollux, ix. 6) and the Sicilian litra (Pollux, iv. 24), are both called stater,

(Sestini, degliStateri AnticJii; Hussey ; Wurm ; Bockh.) [P. S.]

STATERA, a steel-yard. [libra ; tru-

TINA.]

STATI DIES. [dies, p. 409, b.] STATIO'NES. [castra, p. 250, b.] STATIO'NES FISCI. The Fiscus was di­vided into various departments, called Stationes, according to the different revenues belonging to it. (Cod. 4. tit. 31. s. 1; 10. tit. 5. s. 1.) Thus we read of a Stetio XX. Jtereditatium (Orelli, Inscr. n. 3332), a Statio Hereditatium (Orelli, n. 3207 ; Gruter, p. 451, n. 3) ; a Statio Annonac. (Orelli, n. 4107, 4420.) See Walter, Gesch. des Rom. Rechts, § 314. 2d ed.

STATIONES MUNICIPIORUM. [grab-

COSTA SIS.]

STATOR, a public servant, who attended on the Roman magistrates in the provinces. The Statores seem to have derived their name from standing by the side of the magistrate, and thus being at hand to execute all his commands ; they appear to have been chiefly employed in carrying letters and messages. (Cic. ad Fam. ii. 17, 19, x. 21 ; Dig. 4. tit. 6. s. 10.) Alexander Severus forbade the use of statores in the provinces, and commanded that their duties should be discharged by soldiers. (Dig. 4. tit. G. s. 10 ; Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 52.)

STATU LIBER. [manumissio.] STATUA'RIA ARS is in its proper sense the art of making statues or busts, whether they con­sist of stone or metal or other materials, and includes the art of making the various kinds of reliefs (alto, basso, and mezzo relievo). The an­cients, accustomed to trace all their arts and sciences to a single person, who was generally be­lieved to have been led to his discovery by some accidental circumstance, relate several stories to account for the origin and discovery of the arts of painting and statuary. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 5 and 43 ; compare Quintil. x. 2. § 7.) But arts such as these cannot, like those which are the necessary result of particular local circumstances, or are in their origin of a complicated nature, be assigned to any particular nation or to any particular indi­vidual : they spring up naturally in all countries, and take their origin alike everywhere in the imitative faculty of man. It is, therefore, idle talk when modern writers gravely repeat the stories about the invention of sculpture or painting, or assign the invention of either of them to the Egyptians or any other nation. These arts in their infant state existed among the Greeks from time immemorial, and if there are any resemblances between the earliest works of Grecian art and those of Egypt, we have still no right to infer that the Greeks learnt them from the Egyptians, and we might as well assert that the Greeks learnt their arts from the Gauls or from the Siamese, for the works of these nations too resemble those of early Greece, An art in its primitive state manifests itself nearly ijj the same manner in all parts of the world. But

STATUARIA ARS.

what is of real interest is to know the causes through which statuary, or, to use a more common but less appropriate term, sculpture, became bo pre-eminently the art of the Greeks, that down to this day no other nation has produced artists that can compete with them, and that all look upon the Greeks as the great masters and models for all ages. Winckelmann has pointed out three great causes, viz. their innate genius, their religion, and their social and political institutions ; and these three points, if accurately examined, will certainly be found to have singularly co-operated in making the Greek artists what they were. There is another point connected with the origin of Grecian sculpture which appears to have led some modern writers to form erroneous opinions. The peculiar form of the Hermae [hermae] has given rise to the belief that in the earliest statues the head only (bust) was represented, and that the remaining part of the body was expressed by a simple pillar or block. This view is contrary to nature as well as to his­tory, for neither a nation nor a child (which in this case may be fairly taken as a representative of a nation in its infancy), when they begin to exercise their imitative faculty, will rest satisfied with forming the mere head of a human being, but en­deavour to produce the whole as well as they can. We may add, that no other nation presents such a phenomenon in the earliest history of its arts. The Hermae, therefore, cannot have arisen from an incapability of forming a whole human figure. They appear rather to point to the time when the Greeks began to represent their gods in a human form. To give to a god the entire form of a man would have been irreverent, whereas the head was necessary, and at the same time sufficient, to represent him as a distinct individual being and endowed with spiritual and thinking powers. The process of humanizing the gods must have been preceded by the custom of representing them in unnatural forms, or such as were partly human and partly animal. The earliest images of the gods were pure images (not the gods themselves), and intended to express some thought or idea: now as the natural figure of man is only expressive of itself, the significant parts of two or more beings were put together to express the idea which men had formed of their gods. Such monstrous figures were re­tained as representations of some gods down to the latest times. As instances of this we may men­tion Glaucus with the tail of a fish (Philostr. Icon. ii. 15), the Arcadian Pan with goat's feet (Hist. Myiliol. Bilderb. ii. p. 161, &c.), and the Demeter of Phigaleia with the head and mane of a horse. (Paus» viii. 42. § 3.) Homer's silence on such compound representations of the gods is no proof that they did not exist in early times.

Before proceeding to consider statuary in its several stages of developement, it is necessary to make a few preliminary remarks respecting the materials used by the Greeks in this art. On the whole it may be said that there is no material applicable to statuary which was not used by the Greeks. As soft clay is capable of being shaped without difficulty into any form, and is easily dried either by being exposed to the sun or by being baked, we may consider this substance to have been the earliest material of which figures were made. We have a trace of this in the story, that Zeus, in his anger at Prometheus having stolen the fire, ordered Hephaestus to form Pandora of

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