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STADIUM.

home (iii. "240). It' the sketches of the satirist are not too highly coloured, we must conclude that in his time great numbers of the lower orders de­rived their whole sustenance and the funds for or­dinary expenditure exclusively from this source, while even the highborn did not scruple to increase their incomes by taking advantage of the ostenta­tious profusion^of • the rich and vain. (Juv. i. 95.) A regular roll was kept at each mansion of the persons, male and female, entitled to receive the allowance ;~ the names were called over in order, the-'individuals' were required' to appear in person, and the almoner was ever on his guard to frustrate the roguery of false pretenders (Juv. /. c.), whence the proverb quoted by Tertullian (c. Mar-don, iii. 16), spdrtulam Jurunculm "captat. The morning,-as'We have seen above (Juv. i. 128), was .-the usual- period for these distributions, but they were sometimes-made iii the afternoon. (Martial.

x. 7p.> • ; • - ; ;••' -='

Nero, imitating the custom of private persons, ordained that a sportula should be substituted lor the public banquets ( piiUicac coeu&c) given to the people on certain high solemnities ; but this unpo­pular regulation was repealed by Domitian, -(Suet. Ner. 16, Dom. 7 ; Martial, viii. 50,)

When the Emperor Claudius on one occasion resolved unexpectedly to entertain the populace with some games which were to last for a short time only, he styled the exhibition a sportula^ and in the age of the younger Pliny the word was commonly employed to signify a gratuity, gift-, or emolument of any description. (Plin. Ep, ii. 14, x. 118;)

(Compare a dissertation on the Sportula by Buttmann in the Kritische BibliotJtek for 1821 ; see also Beeker, Gattus, vol. i. p. 147.) [W. R.]

STABULARIUS. [recepta actio.j

STADIUM (6 o-rdSios and to o-rddiov) 1. The foot-race course at Olympia and the other places in Greece where games were celebrated. It was originally intended for the foot-race, but the other contests which were added to the games from time to time [olvmpia] were also exhibited in the Sta­dium,'except the horse-races, for which a place was set apart, of a similar form with the stadium, but larger: this was called the hippodromus (cTTTr6$polios).

The stadium was an oblong area terminated at one end by a straight line, at the other by a semi­circle having the breadth of the stadium for its base. Round this area were ranges of seats rising above one another in steps.

It was constructed in three different ways, ac­cording to the nature of the ground. The simplest form was that in which a place could be found which had by nature the required shape, as at Laodicean -Most commonly, however, a position •vvas chosen on the side of a hill, and the stadium was formed on one side by the natural slope, on the other by a mound of earth (yys %cD,ua), as at Olympia, Thebes, and Epidaurus. (Pauaan. ii. 27. § 6, vi. 20. § 5, 6, ix. 23. § 1.) Sometimes, how­ever, the stadium was on level ground, and mounds of earth were cast up round it to form seats, and covered with stone or marble. We have two cele­brated examples of this construction in the Pythian Stadium at Delphi and the Panathenaic at Athens. The former was originally constructed of Parnas­sian stone, and afterwards covered with Pentelic marble by Herodes Atticus (Pans. x. 32.' § 1), who

JO&5

.STADIUM.

adorned in the same manner the stadium at Athens, which had been originally constructed on the banks of the Ilissus by the orator Lycurgus. The mar­ble covering, which took four years to complete, has now disappeared, but the area is still left, with some ruins of the masonry. • (Pans. i. 10. § 7 ; Leake's Topography of Athens.)

The stadium sometimes formed a part of -the buildings of the gymnasium [gymnasium],- at other times it was placed in its neighbourhood, and often, as at Athens, stood entirely by itself. -That at Olympia was in the sacred grove called Altis.

The size of the Grecian stadia varied both in length and breadth ; but this variety is in all pro­bability to be understood of the size of the whole enclosure, not of the length of the part marked out for the race ; the latter appears, to have.; been fixed, while the former was naturally; different, according to the accommodation -to be provided for spectators, or the magnificence which the builder might wish to confer upon the structure. The fixed length of the course, between the pillars which marked the beginning and the end of the race, was 600 Greek feet, There was a tradi­tion that Hercules measured it out originally by his own foot. It is not improbable that Pheidon, who claimed to be a descendant of Hercules $ and who presided as agonothete at the Olympic games, may have fixed the length of the stadium accord­ing to the standard of measure which he esta­blished.

The accounts left by ancient writers of the ar­rangement of the parts of the stadium are scanty, but from a comparison of them with existing re­mains of stadia we may collect the following par­ticulars.

At one end a straight wall shut in the area, and here were the entrances, the star ting-place for the runners, and (at Olympia) an altar of Endymion. At the other end, at or near the centre of the semicircle, and at the fixed distance from the starting-place, was the goal, which was the termi­nation of the simple foot-race, the runners in which were called o"ra5io5p^uoi: the race itself is called oraSjof and 8p6f*.o$: in the 8iav\os Sp6/j.os tho racers turned round this and came back to the starting-place. The starting-place and goal had various names: the former was called &<£e(ns, , and fia\€is: the latter rep/ia, fjLTTTTjp and vvffffa. The term fi is explained as the line along which the racers were placed before starting ; vcr-nXy'^ which means the lash of a whip, is supposed to have been a cord which was stretched in front of the racers to restrain their impatience, and which was let fall when the signal was given to start; the name Ka/ATTT'fip was applied to the goal because the run­ners in the 8iav\os and 5oAt%os turned round it t6 complete their course. These terms are often ap­plied indifferently to the starting-place and the goal ; probably because the starting-place was also the end of all races, except the simple a-rdfiiov. The starting-place and goal were each marked by a square pillar ((TTTjAai, Kioves Ki/£oetS<=?s), and half way between these was a third. On the first was inscribed the word apicrreue, on the second oTreuSe, on the third /ca,mj/oy. The 8r»Atxo5po,uoi turned round both the extreme pillars till they had completed the number of stadia of which their course consisted, which appears to have been dif­ferent on different occasions, for the length of the

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