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SPIRA.

•were generally held by female slaves before their mistresses when dressing (Propert. iv. 7. 75, 76), which office was also performed sometimes by the lover, when admitted to the toilet of his mistress. (Ovid. at. Am. ii. 216.) On ancient vases we sometimes find female slaves represented holding up mirrors to their mistresses. (Tischbein, Engrav. from ancient Vases, vol. i. pi. 10.)

Looking-glasses, however, were also made of the length of a person's body {specula totis paria cor-poribus, Senec. Quaest. Nat, i. 17) : of which kind the mirror of Demosthenes must have been. (Quintil. Inst. Or. xi. 3. § 68.) They were Fastened to the walls sometimes (speculum parieti qffixum, Dig. 34. tit. 2. s. 19. § 8 ; Vitruv. ix. 6'. (9.) p. 280. Bip.), though not generally. Sue­tonius in his life of Horace speaks of an apartment belonging to that poet, which was lined with mirrors (speculatum cubiculuni), which expression, however, Lessing considers as contrary to the Latin idiom, and therefore regards the whole passage as a forgery. That there were, however, rooms orna­mented in this way, is probable from Claudian's description of the chamber of Venus, which was covered over with mirrors, so that whichever way her ej^es turned she could see her own image. (Hymn, in Ntipt. Honor, et Mar. 106, £c.) We frequently find the mirror mentioned in connection with Venus (Athen. xv. p. 687, c.), but Minerva was supposed to make no use of it. (Callim. Hymn, in Lavacr. Pallad. \ 7.)

(Spanheim, Observ. in Calllmacld Hymmim in lavacrum Palladis, p. 547, Ultraj. 1697 ; Menard, Rcclicrches stir Ics Miroirs des A nolens in VPItstoire de rAeademie des Tnscr. vol. xxiii. p. 140 ; Caylus5 Rccucil d^Antiquites, iii. p. 331, v. p. 173 ; Beck-mami, History of Inventions, vol. iii. p. 164, transl.; Bottiger, Sabina, vol. i. pp. 133, 152, vol. ii. pp. 145, 169, GriecJiischen Vasengem'dldden, vol. iii. p. 46; Becker, Gallus, vol. i. p. 97, vol. ii. p. 111.) SPECUS. [aquaeductus, p. 113.] SPHAERISTE'RIUM. [gymnasium, p. 582, a ; pila.]

SPFCULUM. [hasta, p. 589, a.] SPINTER or SPINTHER. [armilla.] SPIRA ((T7T€?pa), dim. SPIRULA (Servius in Virg. Aen. ii. 217), the base of a column.

This member did not exist in the Doric order of Greek architecture [columna], but was always present in the Ionic and Corinthian, and, besides the bases properly belonging to those orders, there

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SPOLIA.

was one called the Attic, which may be regarded as a variety of the Ionic [atticurges]. The term occurs frequently in Vitruvius (iii. 3. § 2 ; 4. § 1, 5 ; 5. § 1—4, iv. 1. § 7, v. 9. § 4, ed. Sehneider) and in Pliny (H.N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4 ; 23. s. 56). They adopted it from the writings of Greek architects, whose works have perished. It is in fact the Greek term (rireTpa, which was ap­plied to this member of a column (Pollux, vii. 121) probably on account of its resemblance to a coil of rope. In ancient Greek inscriptions cnretpa de­notes the base of Ionic and Corinthian pillars, being applied to those of the temples of Minerva Polias at Athens (C. 0. Mviller, Min. Pol. Sacra, pp. 35, 50 ; Bb'ckh, Corp. Inscr. Gr. i. pp. 261— 286), and of Jupiter at Labranda. (C. Fellows, Exc. in Asia Minor, pp. 262, 331.)

In the Tuscan and the Roman Doric the base consisted of a single torus (Festus, s. v. Spira}, sometimes surmounted by an astragal. In the Ionic and Attic it commonly consisted of two tori (torus superior and torus inferior} divided by a scotia (rpo'x^Aos), and in the Corinthian of two tori divided by two scotiae. The upper torus was often fluted (/rngSwro's), and surmounted by an astragal [astragalus], as in the left-hand figure of the annexed woodcut, which shows the form of the base in the Ionic temple of Panops on the Ilissus. The right-hand figure in the same wood­cut shows the corresponding part in the temple of Minerva Polias at Athens. In this the upper torus is wrought with a plaited ornament, perhaps designed to represent a rope or cable. In these two temples the spira rests not upon a plinth

(pUnthtis, 7rAiV0os), but on a podium. In Ionic buildings of a later date it rests on a square .plinth corresponding in its dimensions with the abacus. For other examples, see Mauch, Arcldteldonisclie Ordnungen. [J.Y.]

SPITHAME ((nriQafj.'f)'), a span,& Greek mea­sure equal to 3-4ths of the foot. There was no proper Roman measure corresponding to it, but the later writers used palmus in this sense ; the early writers express the Greek span properly by dodrans. [mensura, p. 751,b; palmus.] [P.S.]

SPOLI A. Four words are commonly employed to denote booty taken in Avar, Praeda, Manubiae, Exuviae, Spolia. Of these, pmeda, bears the most comprehensive meaning, being used for plunder of every description. [praeda.] Mamtbiae was the money which the quaestor realised from the sale of those objects which constituted praeda (Gell. xiii. 24 ; Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 22.) The term Exuviae indicates any thing stripped from the person of a foe, while Spolia, properly speaking, ought to be confined to armour and weapons, although both words are applied loosely to trophies such as cha*

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