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xlv. 43, xlii. 4.) The Socii were also sometimes sent out as colonists with the Romans. (Appian, de Bell Civ. i. 24.) They were never allowed to take up arms of their own accord, and disputes among them were settled by the senate. Notwith standing all this, the socii fell gradually under the arbitrary rule of the senate and the magistrates of Rome ; a-nd after the year b. c. 173, it even be came customary for magistrates, when they travelled through Italy, to require the authorities of allied towns to pay homage to them, to provide them with a residence, and to furnish them with beasts of burden when they continued their journey* (Liv. xlii. 1.) •. Gellius (x. 3) mentions a number of ^other. vexations,'which the Roman magistrates inflicted upon the Socii, who could not venture to seek any redress against them. The only way for the allies to obtain protection against such arbitrary proceedings, was to enter into a kind of dientela with some influential and powerful Ro man, as the Samnites were in the dientela of Fabricius Luscinus (Val. Max. iv. 3. § 6), and the senate, which was at all times regarded as the chief protector of the Socii, not only recognised such a relation of clientela between Socii and a Roman citizen, but even referred to such patrons oases for decision which otherwise it might have decided itself. (Dionys. ii. 11 ; Liv. ix. 20 ; Cic. pro Sull. 21.) Socii who revolted against Rome were frequently punished with the loss of their freedom, or of the honour of serving in the Roman armies. ((jell,I.e.; Appian, de Bell. Hannib. 61; Strab. v. p. 385, vi. p. 389; Fest s. v.• Bnitiani.} Such punishments however varied according to circum stances. After repeated and fruitless attempts to obtain the full Roman franchise by legal means, the Italian allies broke out in open war against Rome, the result of which was that she was com pelled .to grant what she had before-obstinately re«- fused. --.,.,' ••••''-: • -,- - •
After the civitas had been obtained bv all the
Italians.by the Lex Julia de Civitate, the relation of the Italian Socii to Rome ceased. But Rome had long before this event applied the name Socii to.foreign nations also.-which were allied with Rome, though the meaning'of the word in this case differed from that of the Socii Italic!. Livy (xxxiv.: 57,; comp. xxxv. 46) distinguishes two principal kinds of alliances with foreign nations: 1. foedus aequum^ such us might be concluded either after a war in-which neither party had gained a decisive victory, or with a nation with which Rome had never been at war ; 2. &foedus miquum^ when a foreign nation conquered by the Romans was obliged to enter the alliance on any terms proposed by the conquerors. In the latter ease the foreign nation was subject to Rome, and obliged to comply with anything that Rome might demand. But all foreign .Socii, whether they had an equal or unequal alliance, were obliged to send subsidies in troops when Rome demanded them ; these troops, however, did not, like those of the Italian Socii, serve in the line, but were employed as light-armed soldiers, and were called milites auxiliares^ aumliarii^ auxilia, or sometimes .auxilia externa. (Polyb.ii. 32 ; Liv. xxi. 46, £c., xxii. 22, xxvii. 37, xxxv. 11, xlii. 29, 35.) Towards the end of the republic all the Roman allies, whether they were nations or kings, sank down to the condition of mere subjects or vassals of Rome, whose freedom and independence consisted in
nothing but a name. (Walter, Gescli. d. Rom, Rcckis, p. 192, &c.; compare foeoekatae Cm-
TAXES.) [L. S.'j
SOCIO, PRO, ACTIO. [SociETAS.]
SODALES TFTII. [Tmi.]
SOLEA was the simplest kind of sandal [san* dalium], consisting of a sole with little more to fasten it to the foot than a strap across the instep. (Gellius, iii. 14, xiii. 21.) It was sometimes made of wood (Isid. Orig. xix. 33),. and worn by rustics (/caAoTre'SiXa, Theocrit. xxv. 102, 103), resembling probably the wooden sandals which now form part of the dress of the Capuchins., The solea, as worn by the upper classes, was adapted chiefly for wearing in the house, so that when a man went out to dinner, he walked in shoes [calceus], taking with him slippers [Soccus] or soleae, which he put on when he entered1 the house. Before reclining at table, these were taken away by a servant (see woodcut, p. 308 ; Plant. True. ii. 4. 16 ; Ovid. Ar. Am. ii. 212 ; Mart. yiii. 59. 14) ; consequently when dinner was over it was necessary to call for them. (Plant. True. ii. 4. 12, Most. ii. 1. 37 ; Ilor. Sat. ii. 8. 77.) But, according to the state of the roads or of the weather, the shoes or boots were again put on in order to return home, the soleae being carried, as before, under the arm. (Hor. Epist. i. 13. 15.) When circumstances were favourable, this change of the shoes for slippers or soleae was not considered necessary, the latter being worn in the streets. (Mart. xii. 88.)
Soleae ligneae., soles or shoes of wood, were put on, under the authority of the Roman law,, either for the purpose of torture, or perhaps merely to indicate the condition of a criminal, or to prevent his escape, (Cic. Invent, ii. 50, ad Herenn. i, 13.) In domestic life the sandal commonly worn by females was often used to chastise a husband and to bring him into subjection. (Menander, p.,'l?'#. 186, ed. Meineke: solea objurgabere rubra9 Pers. v. 169; sandalio,Ter. Eunuch, v. 8. 4; Juv. vi. 516.)
Iron shoes (soleae ferreae) were put on the feet of mules (Catull. xvii. 26) ; but instead of this, Nero had his mules shod with silver (Sueton. Are?'o, 30), and his empress Poppaea her's with gold. (Plin. H.N. xxxiii. 11. s. 49.) [J. Y.]
SOLIDUS. [aurum, p. 182,b.] "
SOLITAURl'LIA. [sacrificium, p. 1000,a; lustratio, p. 719, b ; and woodcut on p. 1045.]
SORTES, lots. It was a frequent practice among the Italian nations to endeavour to ascertain a knowledge of future events by drawing lots (sortes): in many of the ancient Italian temples the will of the gods was consulted in this way, as at Praeneste, Caere, &c. [oraculum, p. 843, a,] Respecting the meaning of Sors see Cic.de Dh\
These sortes or lots were usually little tablets or counters, made of wood or other materiala, and were commonly thrown into a sitella or urn, filled with water, as is explained under situla. The lots were sometimes thrown like dice. (Suet. Tit),