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On this page: Sitou Dike – Sittybae – Situla – Soccus

SITOU DIKE.

1048

.SOCCUS.

payable on the importation of corn, see pente-coste.

1, is strictly wheat-flour, hXtyira barley-flour, wheat, KpiOal barley, apros ivheat bread, /xa£a barley-bread. 2?ros, however, is often applied to all kinds of corn, and even in a larger sense to pro­ visions in general. [C. R. K.]

SITOU DIKE (a-irov sikij). The marriage portion (ny>o?£) being intended as a provision for the "wife, although it was paid to the husband by her father, brother, or other natural guardian (k.v-pios), if anything happened to sever the marriage contract, the husband or his representative was bound to repay it ; or, if he failed to do so, he was liable to pay interest upon it at the rate of eighteen per cent, per annum (eV eVi/ea 6goAo?s roicofyope'ii'). This was the law in case of a divorce (Demosth. c. Neaer. 1362) ; and also when, after a contract of marriage, and after payment of the marriage por­tion, the intended husband refused to perform his engagement. (Demosth. c. Aphob. 818.) Upon the death of the husband without children, the wife and her money went back to the natural guardian (Isaeus, de Pyrr. her. 41, eel. Steph.) ; but if he died leaving children, she had the option of staying with them or going back to her icvpios. If she did the latter, the children (or their guardian, if they were under age) were bound to pay back the por­tion to the icvpios, or eighteen per cent, interest in the meantime. (Isaeus, de Pyrr. her. 38, 46, ed. Steph.) And if she married again, her Kvpios was bound in honour to give the same sum to her new husband. (Demosth. c. Boeot. de dote, 1010.) Upon the transfer of a woman from one husband to another, which was not uncommon, the 7rpo?| was trans­ferred with her. (Demosth. c. Onet. 866.) A wo­man's fortune was usually secured by a mortgage of the husband's property; but whether this was so or not, her guardian, in any of the cases above mentioned, might bring an action against the party who unjustly withheld it ; St/c?? irpoucbs, to recover the principal, Si/cr; airov, for the interest. The interest was called cr?ros (alimony or maintenance), because it Was the income out of which the woman had to be maintained, at 6(j>fi\6asvai rpo^al, r\ otdouevr] 7rp6<ToBos e*s rpofyfyv rats yvvait-iv. (Har-pocr. s. v. 2?Tos- : Pollux, viii. 33 ; Demosth. c. Aphob. 839, 854.) The word alros is often used generally for provisions, just as we use the word bread. So in the law, which required the son of an €iriK\r)pos to maintain his mother when he came of age and took possession of her inheritance, the expression is t^v crlrov /JLerpeiis rp [Ayrpi. (Demosth. c. Steph. 1135.) The allowance for rations given to soldiers was called ffiTyptcriov. (Bockh, Pull. Econ. of Athens, p. 272, 2d ed.) The diKrj fftrou was tried before the archon in the Odeum, the same building in which the corn granaries were kept, which makes it not improbable that in earlier times the defendant was called upon to pay the damages in kind, that is, in corn or some other sort of provisions ; though it was soon found to be more convenient to commute this for a money payment. This cause, like the Sf/cij irpoiKbs, seems to have belonged to the e^^voL Sfrccu, as it was pre­sumed that the woman could not wait long fox the Jneans of her daily subsistence. It was art/tyros, for the damages were clearly liquidated, being a mere matter of calculation, when the payment of the marriage portion was proved. (Suidas, s. v. We?oj/; Pollux, in. 47, vi. 153. viii,. 31, 33 ;

-427 ; Plainer, [C. R. K.]

Meier, AH. Proc. pp. 43, 423 Proo. und Klag. vol. ii. p. 266.)

SITTYBAE. [liber.]

SITULA, dim. SITELLA (ufyfa), was pro­bably a bucket or pail for drawing and canying water (Plant. Ampli. ii. 2. 30), but was more usu­ally applied to the vessel from which lots were drawn : Sitella, however, was more commonly used in this signification. (Plaut. 6'«s..ii. 5. 34, 43, ii. 6. 7, 11, Liv. xxv. 3, xli. 18.) It appears that the vessel was filled with water (as among the Greeks, whence the word uSpta), and that the lots (sortes.) were made of wood ; and as, though increasing in size below, it had a narrow neck, only one lo:t could come to the top of the water at the same time, when it was shaken. (Situlam hue tecum ajferto cum aqua et sortes, Plant. Cas. ii. 4. 17 ; Cic. in Verr. ii. 51 ; Vopisc. Prob. 8.) The vessel used for drawing lots was also called urna or 'orca- as well as Sitida or Sitella. (Cic, in Vatin. 14; Val; Max. vi. 3. § 4 ; Virg. Aen. vi. 431, &c. ; Lucian., v. 394, with Schol. ; compare Pers. iii. 48.)

It is important to understand the true meaning of Sitella, since almost all modern writers have supposed that the name of Sitella or Cista was given indifferently to the ballot-box, into which those who voted in the comitia and courts of justice cast their tabellae : but Wunder (Codejc Erfutensis, p. clviii. £c.) has proved, that the opinion of Manutius (de Comitiis Romanis, c. 1 5-. p. 527, ed. Graev.) is correct, who maintained tha.t the Sitella was the urn, from which the names of the tribes or centuries were drawn out by lot, so that each might have its proper place in voting:, and that the Cista was the box into . > which the tabellae were cast. [ cist a.]

The form of the Sitella is preserved on a coin of the Cassia gens, which is repre­ sented in the annexed cut. :

SOCCUS, dim. SO/CCULUS, was nearly if not altogether equivalent in meaning to crepida, and denoted a slipper or low shoe, which did not fit closely, and was not fastened by any tie. (Isid, Orig. xix. 33.) Shoes of this description were worn, more especially among the Greeks together with the pallium, both by men and by women. But those appropriated to the female sex were finer and more ornamented (Plin. PI. N. ix. 35. s. 56 ; /Soccus imdiebris, Suet. Calig. 52, Vitell. 2), although those worn by men were likewise in some instances richly adorned according to the taste and means oi' the wearer. (Plant. Bacch. ii. 3. 98.)

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