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books of the Sitophylaces (rfyv irapa tois Act£tj> aTroypa^v) to prove the quantity of corn imported from Pontus, which (he satys) was equal to all that came from elsewhere, owing to the liberality of Leucon, king of the Bosporus, who allowed corn to be exported from Theudosia to Athens free of duty. (Demosth. c. Leptin. 466, 467.) These books were probably kept by the five who acted for the Peiraeeus, whose especial business it would be to inspect the cargoes that wereunladen. (Harpocr. s.v. 2iro^>uAa/c6s: Bockh, Pull Econ. of Athens, p. 83, 2d ed.) [C. R. K.]
SITOS (o-?tos), corn. The soil of Attica, though favourable to the production of figs, olives, and grapes, was not so favourable for corn ; and the population being very considerable in the flourishing period of the Athenian republic, it was necessary to import corn for their subsistence. According to the calculation of Bockh, which does not materially differ from that of other writers,, there were 135,000 freemen and 365,000 slaves residing in Attica. The country, which contained an area of 64,000 stadia, produced annually about two millions of medimni of corn, chiefly barley. The medimnus was about 1 bushel, 3 gallons, and 5'75 pints, or 48 Attic x°^iK€S' Ax0"7^ was considered a fair daily allowance of meal (^/.tep^o-to, rpo^) for a elave. The consumption of1 the whole population was three million medimni, and one-third therefore was imported. It came from the countries bordering on the Euxine Sea (Pontus, as it was called by the Greeks), and more especially from the Cimmerian Bosporus and the Thracian Chersonese ; also from Syria, Egypt, Libya, Cyprus, Rhodes, Sicily, and Euboea. The necessities of the Athenians made them exceedingly anxious to secure a plentiful supply, and every precaution was taken for that purpose by the government as well as by the legislator. Sunium was fortified^ in order that the corn Vessels (o-iray&yal dAKaSes) might come safely round the promontory. Ships of war were often employed to convoy the cargo (TrapaTre/xTretj/ r^v ffnov) beyond the reach of an enemy. (Dem. de Coron. 250, 251, e.Polyd. 1211.) When Pollis, the Lacedaemonian admiral, was stationed with his fleet off Aegina, the Athenians embarked in haste, under the command of Chabrias, and offered him battle, in order that the corn-ships, which had arrived as far as Geraestus in Euboea, might get into the Peiraeeus. (Xenoph. Hellen. v. 4. § 61.) One of the principal objects of Philip in his attack on Byzantium was that, by taking that city he might command the entrance to the Euxine, and so have it in his power to distress the Athenians in the corn trade. Hence the great exertions made by Demosthenes to relieve the Byzantines, of the success of which he justly boasts (de Coron. 254, 307,326).
The measures taken by the legislature to obtain supplies of corn may appear harsh, and their policy is at least doubtful, but they strongly evince the anxiety of the people on the subject. Exportation was entirely prohibited, nor was any Athenian or resident alien allowed to carry corn to any other place than Athens (crmryeTi/ dAA<S<re % 'A07j;/aCe). Whoever did so, was punishable with death. (Dem. c. Phorm. 918 ; Lycurg. c.Leoor. 151, ed. Steph.) Of the corn brought into the Athenian port two-thirds was to be brought into the city and sold there. (Harpocr. s. v. 'ETre^eATjT^s fyiropiov.) No one might lend money on a ship that did not sail
with an express condition to bring a return cargo, part of it com, to Athens. If any merchant, capitalist, or other person advanced money or entered into any agreement in contravention of these laws, not only was he liable to the penalty, but the agreement itself was mill and void, nor could he recover any sum of money, or bring any action in respect thereof. (Dem. c. Lacrit. 941.) Information against the offenders was to be laid before the ^Tre/xeA^ral tov €/niropiov. (Meier, Ait. Proc. p. 87.) Strict regulations were made with respect to the sale of corn in the market. Conspiracies among the corn-dealers ((nroTrwAcu) to buy up the corn (o"vvwv<iiff-0ai), or raise the price (crvvurravai ras r^cas), were punished with death. They were not allowed to make a profit of more than one obol in the medimnus ; and it; was unlawful to buy more than fifty (pop/Aoi at a, time. It is not certain what the size of a <£>opju<fs. was: Bockh supposes it to be about as.muqh as a medimnus. These laws remind us of our own statutes against engrossing and re-grating ; but they appear to have been easily evaded by the corn-dealers. (See the speech of Lysias Kara, t&v aiToirwXuv: Dem. c. Dionysod. 1285.) The sale of corn was placed under the supervision of a special board of officers called Sitophylaces ((TiTo^Aa/ces), while that of all other marketable commodities was superintended by the agoranomi. (Lys. id. 165, ed. Steph.) It was their business to see that meal and bread were of the proper quality, and sold at the legal weight and price. They were bound to; detect the frauds of the factor and the baker, and; (if we may believe Lysias) . they sometimes, suffered death for their want of vigilance. The mode of proceeding against them was by flcrayye\ia before the senate. (Platnerv Proc. und Klag. vol. ii. p. 149.)
Notwithstanding these careful provisions, scarcities (orroSeTcu) frequently occurred at Athensa either from bad harvests, the misfortunes of warv or other accidental causes. The state then made great efforts to supply the wants of the people by importing large quantities of corn, and selling it at a low price. Public granaries were kept in the Odeum, Pompeum, Long Porch, and naval storehouse near the sea. (Pollux, ix. 45 ; Dem. c-Phorm. 918.) Sitonae (ffiT&vai) were appointed to get in th,e supply and manage the sale. Demosthenes was appointed on one occasion to that office (de Coron. 310.) Persons called apodectae (airoo'eKTai) received the corn, measured it out, and distributed it in certain quantities. (Pollux, yiii. 114,) Public-spirited individuals would sometimes import grain at their own expense, and sell it at a moderate price, or distribute it gratuitously, (Dem. c. Phorm. 918.) We read of the Athenian state receiving presents of corn from kings and princes. Thus Leucon, king of the Bosporus, sent a large present, for which he had the honour of a.T€\€ia (exemption from customs-duties) conferred on him by a decree of the people. (Dem. c. Leptin. 467 ; see Isocr. Tpairc&T. 370, ed. Steph.) Psam-metichus, an Egyptian prince, sent a present in Olymp. 83. 4, .Demetrius in Olymp. 118. 2,-Spar-tacus, king of the Bosporus, a few years after. ; In later times", that made by the Roman Atticus is well known. On the whole of this subject the reader is referred to Bockh (Pull. Econ. of Athens^ p. 77, &c,, 2nd. ed.), where also he will find the various prices of meal and bread at Athens, and other detailsj copiously explained. As to the duty
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