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SERVUS.

jimeh for a slave girl- of indifferent character in the time of Martial (vi. 66) ; and two aurei or solidi were not considered so low a price for a slave girl (ancilla) in the time of Hadrian as to occasion doubt of her having come honestly into the hands of the vendor. (Dig. 47. tit. 2. s. 76.) We have seen that in the time of Justinian the legal value of female slaves was equal to that of males ; this may probably have arisen from the circumstance that the supply of slaves was not so abundant then as at earlier times, and that therefore recourse was had to propagation for keeping up the number of slaves. But under the republic and in the early times of the empire this was done to a very limited extent, as it was found cheaper to purchase than to breed slaves.

.. Slaves were divided into many various classes ; i the first division was into public or private. The former belonged to the state and public bodies, and their condition was preferable to that of the common slaves. They were less liable to be sold, and under less control than ordinary slaves : they also possessed the privilege of the testamenti factio to the amount of one half of their property (see above, p. 1039, a), which shows that they were re­garded in a different light from other slaves. Sci-pio, therefore, on the taking of Nova Carthago, promised 2000 artizans, who had been taken pri­soners and were consequently liable to be sold as common slaves, that they should become public slaves of the Roman people, with a hope of speedy manumission, if they assisted him in the war. (Liv. xxvi. 47.) Public slaves were employed to take care of the public buildings (compare Tacit. Hist. i. 43), and to attend upon magistrates and priests. Thus the Aediles and Quaestors had great numbers of public slaves at their command (Gell. xiii. 13), as had also the Triumviri Nocturni, who employed them to extinguish fires by night. (Dig. 1. tit. 15. s. 1.) They were also employed as lictors, jailors, executioners, watermen, &c. (Comp. Gessner, De Servis Rgmanorum publicis^ Berlin, 1844.)

A body of slaves belonging to one person was called famiiia, but two were not considered suffi­cient to constitute a famiiia. (Dig. 50. tit. 16. s. 40.) Private slaves were divided into urban (famiiia urbana) and rustic (famiiia rustica} ; but the name of urban was given to those slaves who se-rved in the villa or country residence as well as in the town house ; so that the words urban and rustic rather characterized' the nature of their oc­cupations than the place where they served. (Ur­bana faniilia et rustica non loco, sed genere distin-giiitur, -Dig. 50. tit. 16. s. 166.) The famiiia urbana could therefore accompany their master to his villa without being called rustica on account of their remaining in the country. When there Avas a large number of slaves in one house, they were frequently divided into decuriae (Petron. 47) : but independent of this division they were arranged in certain classes, which held a higher or a lower rank according to the nature of their occupation. These classes are : Ordinarii, Vidgares, Mediastim, and Quales-Quales (Dig. 47. tit. 10. s. 15), but it is doubtful whether the Literati or literary slaves were included in any of these classes. Those (Jailed Vicarii are spoken of above (p. 1037, b). . Ordinarii seem to have been those slaves who had the superintendence of certain parts of- the housekeeping. They were always chosen from those who had the confidence of their mastei-j and

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..SERVUS.

they generally had certain slaves under them. To this class the adores, procurators and dispensatorcs belong, who occur in the famiiia rustica as well as the famiiia urbana, but in the former are almost the same as the villici. They were stewards or bailiffs. (Colum. i. 7, 8 ; Plin. Ep. iii. 19 ; Cic. ad Att. xi. 1 ; Suet. Gall). 12, Vesp. 22.) To the same class also belong the slaves who had the charge of the different stores, and who correspond to our housekeepers and butlers : they are called cellarii^ promi, condi, procurators peni, &c. [CELLa.]

Vulgares included the great body of slaves in a house who had to attend to any particular duty in the house, and to minister to the domestic wants of their master. As there were distinct slaves or a distinct slave for almost every department of household economy, as bakers (pistores}, cooks (coqui}, confectioners (dulciarii), picklers (salmen-tarii}, &c. it is unnecessary to mention these more particularly. This class also included the porters (Ostiarii}, the bed-chamber slaves [CumcuLARii], the litter-bearers (lecticarii) [lectica], and all personal attendants of any kind.

Mediastmi. [mediastini.]

Quales-Quales are only mentioned in the Digest (1. c.), and appear to have been the lowest class of slaves, but in what respects they differed from the Mediastini is doubtful: Becker (Callus., vol. i. p, 125) imagines they may have been a kind of slavey qualiquali conditione viventcs, which however does not give us any idea of their duties or occupations.

Literati, literary slaves, were used for various purposes by their masters, either as readers [ANA-gnostae], copyists or amanuenses [librarii ; amanuensis], &c. Complete lists of all the duties performed by slaves are given in the works of Pignorius, Popma, and Blair, referred to at the close of this article.

The treatment of slaves of course varied greatly according to the disposition of their masters, but they appear upon the whole to have been treated with greater severity and cruelty than among the Athenians. Originally the master could use the slave as he pleased: under the republic the law does not seem to have protected the person or life of the slave at all, but the cruelty of masters was to some extent restrained under the empire, as has been stated above (p. 1036, b). The general treat­ment of slaves, however, was probably little affected by legislative enactments. In early times, when the number of slaves was small, they were treated with more indulgence, and more like members of the family : they joined their masters in offering up prayers and thanksgivings to the gods (Ho'r. Ejt. ii. 1. 142), and partook of their meals in common with their masters (Pint. CorioL 24), though not at the same table with them, but upon benches (subsdlia} placed at the foot of the lectus. But with the increase of numbers and of luxury among masters, the ancient simplicity of manners was changed : a certain quantity of food was allowed theni (dimensum or demensum}, which was granted to them either monthly (menstruum, Plaut. Stick. i. 2. 3), or daily (diarium, Hor. Ep. i. 14. 41 ; Mart. xi. 108). Their chief food was the corn, called far, of which either four or five modii were granted them a month (Donat. in Ter. Phorm. i. 1. 9; Sen. Ep. 80), or one Roman pound (libra} a day. (iloY.Sat. i. 5.69.) They also obtained an allowance of salt and oil: Cato (R. R. 58) allowed his slaves a sextarius of oil a month and a modi us of salt a

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