The Ancient Library

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three thousand. (Chrysost. vol. vii. p. 633.) Justinian did much to promote the ultimate ex­tinction of slavery ; hut the number of slaves was again increased by the invasion of the barbarians from the north, who* not only brought with them their own slaves who were chiefly Sclavi or Sclavo-nians (whence our word Slave\ but also reduced many of the inhabitants of the conquered provinces to the condition of slaves. But all the various classes of slaves became merged in course of time into the Adscript! Glebae or serfs of the middle


The chief sources from which the Romans ob­tained slaves have been pointed out above. Under the republic one of the chief supplies was prisoners taken in war, who were sold by the quaestores (Plaut. Capt. Prol. 34, and r. 2. 1, 2) with a crown on their heads (see above, p. 1038, b), and usually on the spot where they were taken, as the care of a large number of captives was inconvenient. Con­sequently slave-dealers generally accompanied an army, and frequently after a great battle had been gained many thousands were sold at once, when the slave-dealers- obtained them for a mere nothing. In the camp of Lucullus on one occasion slaves were sold for four drachmae each. The slave trade was also carried on to a great extent, and after the fall of Corinth and Carthage Delos was the chief mart for this traffic. When the Cilician pirates had possession of the Mediterranean as many as 10,000 slaves are said to have been imported and sold there in one day. (Strab. xiv. p. 668.) A large number came from Thrace- and the countries in the north of Europe, but the chief supply was from Africa, and more especially Asia, whence we fre­quently read of Phrygians, Lycians, Cappadocians, &c. as slaves.

The trade of slave-dealers (inangones) was con­sidered disreputable, and expressly distinguished from that of merchants (mangones non mercatores sed venaliciarii appellantur^ Dig. 50. tit. 16.- s. 207; Plaut. Trin. ii. 2. 51) ; but it was very lucrative, and great fortunes were frequently realized from it. The slave-dealer Thoranius, who lived in the time of Augustus, was a well-known character. (Suet. Aug. 69 ; Macrob. Sat. ii. 4 ; Plin. //. N. vii. 12. s. 10.) Martial (viii. 13) mentions another cele­brated slave-dealer in his time of the name of Gar-gilianus.

Slaves were usually sold by auction at Rome. They were placed either on a raised stone (hence de lapide emtus, Cic. in Pis. 15 ; Plaut. BaccJi. iv. 7. 17), or a raised platform (catasta, Tibull. ii. 3. 60 ; Persius, vi. 77$ Casaubon, ad loc.\ so that every one might see and handle them, even if they did not wish to purchase them. Purchasers usu­ally took care to have them stript naked (Senec. Ep. 80 ; Suet. Aug. 69), for slave-dealers had re­course to as many tricks to conceal personal defects as the horse-jockeys of modern times: sometimes purchasers called in the advice of medical men. (Claudian, in Eutrop. i. 35, 36.-) Slaves of great beauty and rarity were not exhibited to public gaze in the common slave-market, but were shown to purchasers in private (ctrcana talmlata catastae, Mart, ix- 60). Newly imported slaves had their feet whitened with chalk (Plin. PI. N. xxxv. 17. s. 58 ; Ovid. Am. i. 8. 64), and those that came from the East had their ears bored (Juv. i. 104), which we know was a sign of slavery among many Eastern nations. The slave-market, like all other


markets, was under the jurisdiction of the aediles, who made many regulations by edicts respecting the sale of slaves. The character of the slave was set forth in a scroll (titulus) hanging round his neck, which was a warranty to the purchaser (Gell. iv, 2; Propert. iv. 5. 51) : the vendor was bound to announce fairly all his defects (Dig. 21. tit. 1. s. 1; Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 284), and if he gave a false account had to take him back within six months from the time of his sale (Dig. 21. tit. 1. s. 19. § 6), or make up to the purchaser what the latter had lost through obtaining an inferior kind of slave to what had been warranted. (Dig. 19. tit. I1-, s. 13, § 4; Cic. de Off. iii. 16, 17, 23.) The vendor might how­ever use general terms of commendation without being bound to make them good. (Dig. 18. tit. 1. s. 43 ; 21. tit. 1. s. 19.) The chief points which the vendor had to Avarrant, was the health of the slave, especially freedom from epilepsy, and that Ire had not a tendency to thievery, running awav, or committing suicide. (Cic. deQff. iii. 17.) The nation of a slave was considered important, and had to be set forth by the vendor. (Dig. 21. tit. 1. s. 31. § 21.) Slaves sold without any warranty wore at the time of sale a cap (pileus) upon their head. (Gell. vii. 4.) Slaves newly imported were generally preferred for common work ; those who had served long were considered artful (veteratores^ Ter. Heaut. v. 1. 16) ; and the pertness and im­pudence of those born in their master's house (vernae, see above,p. 1038) were proverbial. ( Vernae procaces, Hor. Sat. ii. 6. 66 ; Mart. i. 42, x. 3.)

The value of slaves depended of course upon their qualifications ; but under the empire the in­crease of luxury and the corruption of morals led purchasers to pay immense sums for beautiful slaves, or such as ministered to the caprice or whim of the purchaser. Eunuchs always fetched a verv high price (Plin. //. N. vii. 39. s. 40), and Martial (iii. 62, xi. 70) speaks of beautiful boys who sold for as much as 100,000 or 200,000 sesterces each (885/. 8s. 4d. and 1770Z. 16s. Orf.). A mono or fool sometimes sold for 20,000 sesterces. (Mart, viii. 13.) Slaves who possessed a knowledge of any art which might bring in profit to their owners, also sold for a large sum. Thus literary men and doctors frequently fetched a high price (Suet, de III. Gram. ; Plin. //. N. vii. 39. s. 40), and also slaves fitted for the stage, as we see from Cicero's speech on behalf of Q. Roscius. Female slaves who might bring in gain to their masters b}r pros­titution were also dear : sometimes 60 minae were paid for a girl of this kind. (Plaut. Pers. iv. 4. 113.) Five hundred drachmae (perhaps at that time about 18/.) seem to have been a fair price for a good ordinary slave in the time of Horace. (Sat. ii. 7. 43.) In the fourth century a slave capable of bearing arms was valued at 25 solidi or aurei. [AunuM, pi82,a,) (Cod. Theod. 7. tit. 13. s. 13.) In the time of Justinian the legal valuation-of slaves was as folloAvs : common slaves, both male and female, were valued at 20 solidi a piece, and under ten years of age at half that sum ; if they were artificers, they were worth 30 solidi, if notarii 50, if medical men or midwives 60 ; eunuchs under ten years of age were worth 30 solidi, above that age 50, and if they were artificers also, as much as 70. (Cod. 6. tit. 44. s. 3.) Female slaves, unless possessed of personal attractions, were generally cheaper than male. Six hundred sesterces (about 5/.) were thought too

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