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On this page: Scalpturatum – Scamnum – Scapha – Scaphephoria – Scena – Sceptrum – Schoenus – Schola

SCEPTRUM.

rides and other artists, many of wliose wcrks are still preserved. Respecting the various precious and other stones which the ancient artists used in those works, see Miiller, Arch'dol. § 313.

As regards the technical part of the art of work­ing in precious stones, we only know the following particulars. The stone was first polished by the politor^ and received either a plane or convex sur­face ; the latter was especially preferred, when the stone was intended to serve as a seal. The scalptor himself used iron or steel instruments moistened with oil, and sometimes also a diamond, framed in iron. These metal instruments were either sharp and pointed, or round. The ancients understood the use of diamond dust in this work. (Plin. H. N. -xxxvii. 76 ; Miiller, Arch. § 314. 2.) The stones which were destined to be framed in rings, as well as those which were to be inlaid in gold or silver vessels, then passed from the hands of the scalptor into those of the goldsmith (annularius, compositor').

Numerous specimens of intaglios and cameos are still preserved in the various museums of Eu­ rope, and are described in numerous works. For the literature of the subject, and an account of these gems and their engravers, see Winckelmaim, GescJi. d. Kunst, and other works ; Miiller, Ar- ch'dol. § 315, &c. ; and Raoul-Rochette, Lettre a M. Sckorn, 2d ed. [L. S.]

SCALPTURATUM. [domus, p. 431, a.]

SCAMNUM, dim. SCABELLUM, a step which was placed before the beds of the ancients in order to assist persons in getting into them, as some were very high : others which were lower required also lower steps, which were called scabella. (Varro, de Ling. Lot. v. 168; Isidor. xx. 11 ; Ovid, Ars Am. ii. 211.) A scamnum was sometimes also used as a foot-stool. (Ovid, Ar. Am, i. ] 62.) A scamnum extended in length becomes a bench, and in this sense the word is frequently used. The early Romans, before couches were introduced among them, used to sit upon benches (scamnct) before the hearth when they took their meals. (Ovid. Fast. vi. 305.) The benches in ships were also sometimes called seamna. In the technical language of the agrimensores a scamnum was a field which was broader than it was long, and one that was longer than broad was called striga. (Varii Auctor. Rei Agr. pp. 46,125,198, ed. Goes.) In the language of the Roman peasantry a scam­num was a large clod of earth which had not been broken by the plough. (Colu'm. ii. 2.) [L. S.J

SCAPHA. [navis, p. 786, a.]

SCAPHEPHORIA. [hydriaphoria.]

SCENA. [theatrum.]

SCEPTRUM is a latinised tan of the Greek (TKriTrrpoi/., which originally denoted a simple staff or walking-stick. (Horn. II. xviii. 416 ; Aeschyl. Agam. 74 ; Herod, i. 195.) The corresponding Latin term is scipio, springing from the same root and having the same signification, but of less fre­quent occurrence.

As the staff was used not merely to support the steps of the aged and infirm, but as a weapon of defence and assault, the privilege of habitually car­rying it became emblematic of station and autho­rity. The straight staves which are held by two of the four sitting figures in the woodcut at p. 98, while a third holds the curved stafE, or lituus, in­dicate no less than their attitude and position, that they are exercising judicial functions. In ancient

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SCHOLA.

authors the sceptre is represented as belonging more especiall}'- to kings, princes, and leaders of tribes (Horn. II. ii. 186, 199, 265, 268, 279, xviii. 557, Od. ii. 37, 80, iii. 412) : but it is also borne by judges (Horn. Od. xi. 568), by heralds (II. iii. 218, vii. 277, xviii. 505), and by priests and seers, (Horn. 77. i. 15, Od. xi. 91 ; Aeschyl. Agam. 1236.) It was more especially characteristic of Asiatic manners, so that among the Persians whole classes of those who held high rank and were in­vested with authority, including eunuchs, were distinguished as the sceptre-bearing classes (ot <rKT)iTTovxoi, Xen. Cyr. vii. 3. § 17, viii. 1. § 38, 3. § 15). The sceptre descended from father to son (Horn. 11 ii. 46, 100—109), and might be committed to any one in order to express the transfer of authority. (Herod, vii. 52.) Those who bore the sceptre swore by it (Horn. II. i. 234 —239), solemnly taking it in the right hand and raising it towards heaven. (Horn. //. vii. 412, x. 321, 328.)

The original wooden staff, in consequence of its application to the uses now described, received a

variety of ornaments or eJiiblems. It early became a truncheon, pierced with golden or silver studs. (II. i. 246, ii. 46.) It was enriched with gems (Ovid. Met. iii. 264), and made of precious metals or of ivory (i. 178, Fast. vi. 38.) The annexed woodcut, taken from one of Sir "Wra. Hamilton's fictile vases, and representing Aeneas followed by Ascanitis and carrying off his father Anehises, who holds the sceptre in his right handj shows its form as worn by kings. The ivory sceptre (eburneus scipio^ Val. Max. iv. 4. § 5) of the kings of Rome, which descended .to the consuls, was surmounted by an eagle. (Virg. Aen. xi. 238 ; Serv. ad loc.j Juv. x. 43 ; Isid. Orig. xviii. 2.) [!nsigne.] Jupiter and Juno, as sovereigns of the gods, were repre­sented with a sceptre. (Ovid, II. cc.) [J- Y.]

SCHOENUS (o, f), vxotvos\ literally, a rope of rushes, an Egyptian and Persian itinerary and land measure (Herod, i. 66). Its length is stated by Herodotus (ii. 6, 9) at 60 stadia, or 2 para- sangs ; by Eratosthenes at 40 stadia', and by others at 32 or 30. (Plin. //. N. v. 9. s. 10,- xii, 14. s. 30.) Strabo and Pliny both state thait the' schoenua varied in diPerent parts of Egypt and Persia. (Strabo, p. 803 ; Plin. Ht N. vi. 26. s, 30 ; comp Athen. iii. p. 122, a.) [P-S.J

SCHOLA [balneae, p. 189, b,J

a t 2

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