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struction and use of ladders was the same among. the ancients as in modern times, and therefore re­quires no explanation, with the exception of those used in besieging a fortified place and in making an assault upon it. The ladders were erected against the walls (admovere^ ponere, apponere, or erigere scalas), and the besiegers ascended them under showers of darts and stones thrown upon them by the besieged. (Sallust. Jug. 6, 64 ; Caes. de Bell. Civ. i. 28, 63 ; Tacit. Hist. iv. 29, &c. ; Veget. de Re Milit. iv. 2 1 ; Polyb. ix. 1 8.) Some of these ladders were formed like our common others consisted of several parts (/cAi^a/ces l or SiaAurcu) which might be put together so as to form one large ladder, and were taken to pieces when they were not used. Sometimes also they were made of ropes or leather with large iron hooks at the top, by which they were fastened to the walls to be ascended. The ladders made •\\ holly of leather consisted of tubes sowed up air­tight, and when they were wanted, these tubes were filled with air. (Heron, c. 2.) Heron also mentions a ladder which was constructed in such a manner, that it might be erected with a man standing on the top, whose object was to observe what was going on in the besieged town. (Heron, c. 12.) Others again were provided at the top with a small bridge, which might be let down upon the wall. (Heron, 19.) In ships small lad­ders or steps were likewise used for the purpose of ascending into or descending from them. (Virg. Aen. x. 654; Heron, c. 11.)

In the houses of the Romans the name Scalae was applied to the stairs or staircase, leading from the lower to the upper parts of a house. The • steps were either of wood or stone, and, as in ma- : dern times, fixed on one side in the wall. (Vitruv, ix. 1. § 7, &c.) It appears that the staircases in Roman houses were as dark as those of old houses in modern times, for it is very often mentioned, that a person concealed himself in sccdis or in sca-larum tenebris (Cic. pro Mil. 15, PMlip. ii. 9 ; Horat. Epist. ii. 2. 15), and passages like these need not be interpreted, as some commentators have done, by the supposition that in sccdis is the same as sub scalis. The Roman houses had two kinds of staircases : the one were the common , scalae, which were open on one side ; the others \ were called scalae Graecae or K\ijn«ff€s, which were i closed on both sides. Massurius Sabinus (ap. Gell. x. 15. § 29) states, that the Flaminica was not al­lowed to ascend higher than three steps on a com­mon scala, but that she might make use of a climax like every other person, as here she was concealed when going up. (Serv. ad Aen. iv. 664.) [L. S.~]

SCALPTURA or SCULPTU'RA. There are two different forms of this word both in Greek and Latin, viz. scalpo, scalptura^ and sculpo, sculp" tura (in Greek y\d<f)(a and y\v<poi)), and there is much doubt respecting their precise meaning. The original meaning, common to them, is undoubtedly the cutting figures out of a solid material. The general opinion is, that both scalpo and sculpo, with their derivatives, signify the same thing, only dif­ferent in degree of perfection, so that scalptura would signify a coarse or rude, sculpture an elabo­rate and perfect engraving. This opinion is chiefly based upon the following passages : Horat. Sat. ii. 3. 22 ; Ovid, Met. x. 248 ; Vitruv. iv. 6. (Com­pare the commentators on Suet. Galb. 10.) Others again believe that scalpo ty\&<f><d) signifies to cut


figures into the material (intaglio), and sculpt (y\v(p(a) to produce raised figures, as in cameos But it is very doubtful whether the ancients them­selves made or observed such a distinction. From the passages in which the words occur, both in Greek and Latin writers, it seems that, in their widest sense, they were used, almost indifferently, for what we call sculpture^ in its various forms, in wood, marble, ivo^, or other materials, more par­ticularly for reliefs, for carving^ that is, the exe­cution of small works by cutting, and for engraving precious stones; but, of these senses, the last was the most specific and usual ; the first, in which modern writers use the word sculpture, was the most unusual. [statuaria.] (See the Greek and Latin Lexicons).

It may be expedient, however, in accordance with the above distinction to divide the art into two departments; L the art of cutting figures into the material (intaglios), which was chiefly applied to producing seals and matrices for the mints ; and 2. the art of producing raised figures (cameos), which served for the most part as ornaments.

The former of these two branches was much more extensively practised among the ancients than in modern times, which arose chiefly from the general custom of every free man wearing a seal-ring. [ANNULUS.J The first engravings in metal or stone, which served as seals, were simple and rude signs without any meaning, sometimes merely consisting of a round or square hole. (Meyer, Kimstge-scliiclvte, i, 10.) In the second stage of the art, certain symbolical or conventional forms, as in the worship of the gods, were introduced, until at last, about the age of Pheidias and Praxiteles, this, like the other branches of the fine arts, had com­pleted its free and unrestrained career of develope-men.t, and was carried to such a degree of perfec­tion that, in the beauty of design as well as of exe­cution, the works "of the ancients remain unrivalled down to the present day. But few of the names of the artists, who excelled in this art, have come down to us. Some intaglios, as well as cameos, have a name engraved upon them, but it is in many cases more probable that such are the names of the owners than of the artists. The first artist who is mentioned as an engraver of stones is Theodoras,, the son of Telecles, the Samian, who engraved the stone in the ring of Polycrates. (Herod, iii. 41.) The most celebrated among them was Pyrgoteles, who engraved the seal-rings for Alexander the Great. (Winckelmann, vi. p. 107, &c. ; see the articles in the Did. of Biog.) The art continued for a long time after Pyrgoteles in a very high state of perfection, and it appears to have been applied about this period to orna­mental works. For several of the successors of Alexander and other wealthy persons adopted the custom, which was and is still very prevalent in the East, of adorning their gold and silver vessels, craters, candelabras, and the like, with precious stones on which raised figures (cameos) were worked. (Ath. xi. p. 781 ; Cic. c. Verr. ii. 4. 27, &c.) Among the same class of ornamental works we may reckon such vessels and paterae as con­sisted of one stone, upon which there was in many cases a whole series of raised figures of the most exquisite workmanship. (Appian. Mithrid. 115 ; Cic. 1. c. ; Plin. H. N. xxxvii. 3.) The art was in a particularly flourishing state at Rome under Au­gustus and his successors, in the hands of Dioscu-

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