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On this page: Samnites – Sandalium – Sandapila – Sarcothagus


Rome, who were gratified by this attention. (Mer~ cenarius Salutator^ Colum. Praef. i. ; Martial, x. 74 ; Becker, GaUus^'\Q\. i. p. 146.) [sportula.] SAMBUCA ((Tafj,€vKr)^ or craSvKK], Arcadius de Accent, p. 107), a harp. The preceding Latin and Greek names are with good reason represented by Bochart, Vossius, and other critics, to be the same with the Hebrew &G2D (sabeca), which occurs in

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Daniel (iii. 5, 7, 10). The performances of sam-bucistriae (cra^vKiffrpiai') were only known to the early Romans as luxuries brought over from Asia. (Plaut. Stick, ii. 3. 57; Liv. xxxix. 6.) The Athe­nians considered them as an exotic refinement (Philemon, p. 370, ed. Meineke) ; and the Rhodian women who played on the harp at the marriage-feast of Caranus in Macedonia, clothed in very thin tunics, were introduced with a view to give to the entertainment the highest degree of splendour. Some Greek authors expressly attributed the in­vention of this instrument to the Syrians or Phoe­nicians. (Athen. iv. p. 175, d.) The opinion of those who ascribed it to the Lyric poet, Ibycus, can only authorize the conclusion, that he had the merit of inventing some modification of it, the instrument as improved by him being called *\§vkivov. (Athen. /. c.; Suidas, s. vv. 'ISvKwov:

Strabo, moreover, represents ffa^vKf] as a " bar­barous" name (x. 3. § 17).

The sambtica is several times mentioned in con­junction with the small triangular harp (rpiyavov'), which it resembled in the principles of its con­struction, though it was much larger -and more complicated. The trigonum^ a representation of which from the Museum at Naples is given in the annexed woodcut, was held like the lyre in the hands of the performer (Spon-, Misc. Efttd. Ant. p. 21), whereas the harp was sometimes consider­ably higher than the stature of the performer, and was placed upon the ground. The harp of the Parthians and Troglodytae had only four strings. (Athen. xiv. p. 633, f.) Those which are painted oft the walls of Egyptian tombs (see Denon, Wilkin-son, &c.) have from 4 to 38. One of them, taken from Brace's travels, is here introduced. From the allusions to this instrument in Vitmvius (vi. 1) we find that the longest string was called the " proslambanomenon," the next " hypate," the shortest but one " paranete," and the shortest, which had consequently the highest tone, was called " nete." [See MusrcA, p. 775.] Under the Roman Emperors the harp appears to have



come into more general use (Pers. v. 95 ; Spartian. ffadr. 26), and was played by men (<rau£u/a<rTa}) is well as women. (Athen. iv. p. 182, e.)

Sambuca was also the name of a military engine, used to scale the walls and towers of besieged hies. It was called by this name on account of its general resemblance to the form of the harp. Accordingly, we may conceive an idea of its con­ struction by turning to the woodcut and supposing a mast or upright pole to be elevated in the place of the longest strings, and to have at its summit an apparatus of pulleys, from which ropes proceed in the direction of the top of the harp. We must suppose a strong ladder, 4 feet wide, and guarded at the sides with palisades, to occupy the place of the sounding-board, and to be capable of being lowered or raised at pleasure by means of the ropes and pulleys. At the siege of Syracuse Marcellus had engines of this description fixed upon vessels, which the rowers moved up to the walls so that the soldiers might enter the city by ascending the ladders. (Polyb. viii. 5 ; Pint. Marc. p. 558, ed, Steph.; Athen. xiv. p. 634, b; Onosandr.*Sft*atf. 42 ; Vitruv. x. 16. § 9 ; Festus, s. v.Sambuca; Athen. de Macli. ap. Math. Vet. p. 7.) When an inland city was beleaguered, the Sambuca was mounted upon wheels. (Bito, ap. Math. Vet. pp. 110, 111 ; Veget. iv. 21.) [J. Y.]

SAMNITES. [gladiatokes, p. 576, a.]

SANDALIUM (<ravU\tov or <rdv$a\ov\ a kind of shoe worn only by women. In the Homeric age however it was not confined to either sex, and consisted of a wooden sole fastened to the foot with thongs. (Horn. Hymn, in Merc. 79, 83, 139.) In later times the sandalimn must be distinguished from the vTrdS^ua, which Avas a simple sole bound under the foot (Pollux, viii. 84, with KiihiVs emendation), whereas the sandalium, also called jSAauTicc or /3A.avr?7, was a sole with a piece of leather covering the toes, so that it formed the transition from the uTrdS^/m to real shoes. The piece of leather under the toes was called (jrybs or £vy6v. (Aristoph. Lysistr. 390, with the Schol. ; Hesych. s. v. Zvyos; Pollux, vii. 81 ; Phot. Lex. p. 54, ed. Dobr.) The ffavSdXia &£vya in Strabo (vi. p. 2,59) are however not sandalia without the (vyov, but, as Becker (Charikles, ii. p. 367, &e,) justly remarks, sandalia which did not belong to one another, or did not form a pair, and one of which was larger or higher than the other. The £vyov was frequently adorned with costly em­ broidery and gold (Cephisodor. ap. Poll. vii. 87 ; Clem. Alex. P&edag. ii. 11), and appears to have been one of the most luxurious articles of female dress. (Aelian, V. II. i. 18.) The small cover of the toes however was not sufficient to fasten the sandalium to the foot, wherefore thongs likewise beautifully adorned were attached to it. (Pollux, vii. 92.) Although sandalia, as we have stated, were in Greece and subsequently at Rome aLso worn by women only, yet there are traces that at least in the East they were also worn by men. (Herod, ii. 91 ; St. Mark, vi. 9.)

The Roman ladies, to whom this ornament of the foot was introduced from Greece, wore sandalm which appear to have been no less beautiful and costly than those worn by the Greeks and the Oriental nations. (Tarpilius, ap. Non. v. 24 ; Terent, Eunuch, v. 7. 4.) [L.S.]

SANDAPILA. [funus, p. 55.9, a.]

SARCOTHAGUS. [funus, p. 559,b,]

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