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these movements are rhythmical, accompanied by the flute. At last the robber binds the man and drives away the oxen, but sometimes the husband­man conquers. (Xen. Anal), vi. 1. §§ 7, 8; Athen. i. pp. 15, f, 16, a; Maxim. Tyr. Diss. xxviii. 4.) Similar dances by persons with arms are mentioned by Xenophon on the same occasion. These dances were frequently performed at banquets for the en­tertainment of the guests (Athen. iv. p. 155, b.). At banquets likewise the KvSiorrirjTripes or tum­blers were frequently introduced. These tumblers, in the course of their dance, flung themselves on their heads and alighted again on their feet (facnrep ot Kv§KrT&VT€S koi els opOpbv tu <rKc\r) irepupepofAevoi icvSicrTaxri Ku/cAw, Plato, Symp. c. 16, p. 190). We read of /ci/£i<m]Tf?pes as early as the time of Homer. (11. xviii. 605, Od. iv. 18.) They were also accustomed to make their somerset over knives or swords, which was called KvSurTcw els juaxa:pas. (Plato, Euthyd. c. 55. p. 294 ; Xen. Mem, i. 3. § 9, Symp. ii. 14 ; Athen. iv. p. 129, d ; Pollux, iii. 134.) The way in which this feat was performed is described by Xenophon, who says (Symp. ii. 11) that a circle was made quite full of upright swords, and that the dancer ets ravra fKi'Siffra re Kal QenvSiffra inrep avr&v • and it is well illustrated by the following cut taken from the Museo Borbonico, vol. vii. tav. 58. (Becker, Ckarikles, vol. i. p. 499, vol. ii. p. 287.) We learn from Tacitus (Germ. 24) that the German youths also used to dance among swords and spears pointed at them.


Other kinds of dances were frequently performed at entertainments, in Rome as well as in Greece, by courtezans, many of which were of a very inde­cent and lascivious nature. (Macrob. Satt ii. 10; Plaut. Stick' v. 2. 11.) The dancers seem to have frequently represented Bacchanals: many such dancers occur in the paintings found at Hercula-neum and Pompeii in a variety of graceful atti­tudes. (See Museo Borbonico^ vol. vii. tav. 34— 40, vol. ix. tav. 1 7, vol. x. tav. 5, 6,.54.)

Among the dances performed without arms one of the most important was the o/tytoy, which was danced at Sparta by youths and maidens together; the youth danced first some movements suited to his age, and of a military nature ; the maiden fol­lowed in measured steps and with feminine ges­tures. Lucian (de Salt. 12) says that it was similar to the dance performed at the Gymnopaedia. (Compare Miiller, Dor. iv. 6. § 5.) Another com­mon dance at Sparta was the Bibasis (fiiGaa'is'), which was much practised both by men and women. The dance consisted in springing rapidly from the


ground, and striking the feet behind; a feat of which a Spartan woman in Aristophanes (Lysistr. 28) prides herself (yvjava^So/Jt-al ya Kal Trorl irvyav a\\0{jiai). The number of successful strokes was counted, and the most skilful received prizes. We are told, by a verse which has been preserved by Pollux (iv. 102), that a Laconian girl had danced the bibasis a thousand times, which was more than had ever been clone before. (Miiller, Dorians, iv. 6. §8.)

In many of the Greek states the art of dancing was carried to great perfection by females, who were frequently engaged to add to the pleasures and enjoyment of men at their symposia. These dancers always belonged to the hetaerae. Xeno­phon (Symp. ix. 2—7) describes a mimetic dance which was represented at a symposium, where Socrates was present. It was performed by a maiden and a youth, belonging to a Syracusian, who is called the opxycrroSiScia-tcaXos, and repre­sented the loves of Dionvsus and Ariadne.


Respecting the dancers on the tight-rope see


Dancing was common amoiiff the Romans in an-

a o

cient times in connection with religious festivals and rites, and was practised according to Serving (ad Virg. Ed. v. 73), because the ancients thought that no part of the body should be free from the. influence of religion. The dances of the Salii, which were performed by men of patrician families, are spoken of elsewhere. [salii.] Dionysius (vii. 72) mentions a dance with arms at the Liicli Magni, which, according to his usual plan of re­ferring all old Roman usages to a Greek origin, lie calls the Pyrrhic. There was another old Roman dance of a military nature, called Bellicrepa Satta-tiO) which is said to have been instituted by Ro­mulus, after he had carried off the Sabine virgins, in order that a like misfortune might not befall his state. (Festus, s. t\) Dancing, however, was not performed by any Roman citizen except in Con­nection with religion ; and it is only in reference to such dancing that we are to understand the statements, that the ancient Romans did not con­sider dancing disgraceful, and that not only free­men, but the sons of senators and noble matrons practised it. (Quintil. Inst. Orat. i. 11. § 18; Macrob. Sat. ii. 10.) In the later times of the republic we know that it was considered highly disgraceful for a freeman to dance : Cicero re­proaches Cato for calling Murena a dancer (satta-tor), and adds " nemo fere sal tat sobrius, nisi forte insanit." (Pro Muren. 6; compare in Pison. 10.)

The mimetic dances of the Romans, which were carried to such perfection under the empire, are described under pantomimus. (Meursius, Or­chestra ; Burette, de la Danse des Anciens ; Krause, Gymnastik und Agon. d. Hell. p. 807, &c.)


SALUTATORES, the name given in the later times of the republic and under the empire to a class of men who obtained their living by visiting the houses of the wealthy early in the morning to pay their respects to them (salutare}, and to accom­pany them when they went abroad. This arose from the visits which the clients were accustomed to pay to their patrons, and degenerated in latei times into the above-mentioned practice. Such persons seem to have obtained a good living among the great number of wealthy and vain persons at

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