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On this page: Sagmina – Sagum – Salampnia – Salarium – Salientes – Tormentum



III. The feathers are shown on ancient monu­ments of all kinds, and are indicated by the terms alae (Virg. Aen. ix. 578, xii. 319), pennatae sa-gittae (Prudentius, Hamart. 498), and Trrepoeyres o'iorroi. (Horn. II. v. 171.) The arrows of Hercu­les are said to have been feathered from the wings of a black eagle. (Hes. L c.)

Besides the use of arrows in the ordinary way,

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they were sometimes employed to carry fire. Julius Caesar attempted to set Antony's ships on fire by sending /3eA?7 trvp^opa from the bows of his archers. (Dion Cass. 1. 34.) A head-dress of small arrows is said to have been worn by the Indians (Prudentius, /. c.), the Nubians and Egyptians, and other Orien­tal nations. (Claudian, de Nupt. Honor. 222, de 3 Cons. Honor. 21, de Laud. Stil. i. 254.)

In the Greek and Roman armies the sagittarii, more anciently called arquites, i. e. archers, or bowmen (Festus, s. v.), formed an important part of the light-armed infantry. (Caesar, Bell. Civ. i. 81, iii. 44 ; Cic. ad Fain. xv. 4.) They belonged, for the most part, to the allies, and were princi­pally Cretans. [Aficus ; corytus ; pharetra ;


SAGMINA were the same as the Verbenae, namel}", herbs torn up by their roots from within the inclosure of the Capitol, which were always carried by the Fetiales or ambassadors, when they went to a foreign people to demand restitution for wrongs committed against the Romans, or to make a treaty. [fetiales.] They served to mark the sacred character of the ambassadors, and answered the same purpose as the Greek nrjpvKfia. (Plin. //. Ar. xxii. 2. s. 3 ; Liv. i. 24, xxx. 43 ; Dig. 1. tit. 8. s. 8.) Pliny (I. c.} also says that sagmina were used in remediis publicis., by which we must understand expiations and lustrations. The word Verbena seems to have been applied to any kind of herb, or to the boughs and leaves of any kind of

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tree, gathered from a pure or sacred place. (Serv. ad Virg. Aen. xii. 120.)

According to Festus (s. v.}, the verbenae were called sagmina, that is, pure herbs, because they were taken by the consul or the praetor from a sacred (sancto) place, to give to legati when setting out to make a treaty or declare war. He connects it with the words mnctus and sancire, and it is not at all impossible that it may contain the same root, which appears in a simpler form in sac-er (sag-men* sa(ii)c-tus) : Marcian (Di;j. 1. e.) however makes a ridiculous mistake, when he derives sanctus from


Muller (ad Fesium, p. 320) thinks, that samen-tum is the same word as sagm&n, although used re­specting another thing by the Anagnienses. (M. Aurelius, in Epist. ad Fronton, iv. 4.)

SAGUM was the cloak worn by the Roman sol­diers and inferior officers, in contradistinction to the Paludamentum of the general and superior officers. [paludamentum,] It is used in opposition to the toga or garb of peace, and we accordingly find that when there was a war in Italy, all citizens put on the sagum even in the city, with the exception of those of consular rank (saga suinere, ad saga ire, in sagis esse, Cic, Phil. viii. 11, v. 12, xiv. 1) : hence in the Social or Marsic war the sagum was worn for two years. (Liv. Epit. 72, 73 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 16.)

The sagum was open in the front, and usually fastened across the shoulders by a clasp, though not always (Trebell. Poll. Trig. Tymnn. 10): it


resembled in form the Paludamentum (see wood­cuts, p. 854), as we see from the specimens of it on the column of Trajan and other ancient monu­ments. It was thick and made of wool (Mart, xiv. 159), whence the name is sometimes given to the wool itself. (Yarro, L. L. v. 167, ed. Muller.) The cloak worn by the general and superior officers is sometimes called sagum (Punicum sagum, Hor. Ep, ix. 28), but the diminutive Sagulum is more commonly used in such cases. (Compare Sil. Ital. iv. 519, xvii. 528 ; Liv. xxx. 17, xxvii. 19.)

The cloak worn by the northern nations of Europe is also called sagum ; see woodcut, p. 213, where three Sarmatians are represented with saga, and compare pallium, p. 852. The German sagum is mentioned by Tacitus (Germ. 17): that worn by the Gauls seems to have been a species of plaid (vevsieolor sagulum, Tac. Hist. ii. 20).

The outer garment worn by slaves and poor persons is also sometimes called sagum. (Columell. 1. 8 ; compare Dig. 34. tit. 2. s. 23. § 2.)

SALAMPNIA. [paralus.]

SALARIUM, a salary. The ancients derive the word from sal, i. 0. salt (Plin. //. N. xxxi. 41) ; the most necessary thing to support human life being thus mentioned as a representative for all others. Salarium therefore comprised all the pro­visions with which the Roman officers were sup­plied, as well as their pay in money. In the time of the republic the name salarium does not appear to have been used ; it was Augustus who in order to place the governors of provinces and other mili­tary officers in a greater state of dependence, gave salaries to them or certain sums of monej1", to which afterwards various supplies in kind were added, (Suet. Aug. 36; Tacit. Agric. 42; Treb. Poll, Claud. 14 and 15 ; Flav. Vopisc. Prob. 4.) Before the time of Augustus, the provincial magistrates' had been provided in their provinces with every­thing they wanted, through the medium of redemp-tores (irdpoxoi), who undertook, for a certain sura paid by the state, to provide the governors with all that was necessary to them. During the empire we find instances of the salarium being paid to a person who had obtained a province, but was ne­vertheless not allowed to govern it. In this case the salarium was a compensation for the honour and advantages which he might have derived from the actual government of a province, whence we can scarcely infer that the sum of 10,000 sesterces, which was offered on such an occasion (Dion Cass. Ixxviii, 22), was the regular salarium for a pro­consul.

Salaria were also given under the empire to other officers, as to military tribunes (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 6 ; Juv. iii. 132), toassessores [assessor], to senators (Suet. Nero, 10), to the comites of the princeps on his expeditions (Suet. Tib. 46), and others. Antoninus Pius fixed the salaries of all the rhetoricians and philosophers throughout the empire (Capitol, Ant. Pius, 11), and when persons did not fulfil their duties, he punished them by deducting from their salaries. (Capitol, ibid. 7.) Alexander Severus instituted fixed salaries for rhetoricians, grammarians, physicians, haruspices, mathematicians, mechanicians and architects ( Lam- prid. Aleac. Sev. 44) ; but to how much these sala­ ries amounted we are not informed. Respecting the pay which certain classes of priests received, see sacerdos, [L. S.]

SALIENTES. [fons, p. 544, b.] .

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