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also intended to induce the deity to bestow some favour upon the sacrifice!1, or upon those on whose "behalf the sacrifice was offered. Sacrifices in a wider sense would also embrace the donaria ; in a narrower sense sacrificia were things offered to the gods, which merely afforded momentary gratification, which were burnt upon their altars, or were believed to be consumed by the gods. We shall divide all sacrifices into two great divisions, bloody sacrifices and unbloody sacrifices, and, where it is necessary, consider Greek and Homan sacrifices separately.
Bloody sacrifices. As regards sacrifices in the earliest times, the 'ancients themselves sometimes imagined that imlbloodj sacrifices^ chiefly offerings of fruit, had been customary long before bloody sacrifices were introduced among them. (Plat, de Leg. vi. p. 782 ; Paws. viii. 2. § 1, i. 26. § 6 ; Macrob. Sat. 5. 10, &ct) It cannot indeed be denied, that sacrifices of fruit, cakes, libations, and the like existed in very early times.; but bloody sacrifices, and more than this, human sacrifices, are very frequently mentioned in early story ; in fact the mythology of Greece is full of instances of human sacrifices being offered and" of their pleasing the gods. Wachsmuth (Hell. Alt. ii. p. 549, &e. 2d edit.) has given a list of the most celebrated instances. It may be said that none of them has come down to us with any degree of historical evidence ; but surely the spirit which gave origin to those legends is sufficient to prove that human sacrifices had nothing repulsive to the anci?nts, and must have existed to some extent. In the historical times of Greece we find various customs in the worship of several gods, and in several parts of Greece, which can only be accounted for by supposing that they were introduced as substitutes for human sacrifices. In other cases where civilisation had shown less of its softening influences, human sacrifices remained customary throughout the historical periods of Greece, and down to the time of the emperors. Thus in the worship of Zeus Lycaeus in Arcadia, where human sacrifices were'said to have been introduced by Lycaon (Pans. viii. 2. § 1), they appear to have continued till the time of the Roman emperors. (Theophrast. ap. Porphyr. deAbstin. ii. 27; Plut. Quaest. Gr. 39.) In Leiacas a person was every year at the festival of Apollo thrown from a rock into the sea (Strab. x. p. 452); and Themistocles before the battle of Salamis is said to* have sacrificed three Persians to Dionysius. (Plut. Them. 13, Arist. 11, Pelop. 21.) Respecting an annual sacrifice of human beings at Athens, see thargelia. With these few exceptions however Imman sacrifices had ceased in the historical ages of Greece. Owing to the influences of civilisation, in many cases animals were substituted for human beings, in others a few drops of human blood were thought sufficient to propitiate the gods. (Pans, viii. 23. § 1, ix. 8. § 1.) The custom of sacrificing human life to the gods arose undoubtedly from the belief, which under different forms has manifested itself at all times and in all nations, that the nobler the sacrifice and the dearer to its possessor, the more pleasing it would be to the gods. Hence the frequent instances in Grecian story of persons sacrificing their own children, or of persons devoting themselves to the gods of the lower world. ]u later times, however, persons sacrificed to the gods were generally criminals who had been condemned to death; or such as had been taken prisoners in war.
That the Romans also believed human .sacrifices to be pleasing to the gods, might be inferred from the story of Cm-tins and from the self-sacrifice of the Decii. The symbolic sacrifice of human figures made of rushes at the Lemuralia [lemu-ralia] also shows that in the early history of Italy human sacrifices were not uncommon. For another proof of this practice, see the article ver sacrum. One awful instance also is known, which belongs to the latest period of the Roman republic. When the soldiers of Jraliius Caesar attempted an insurreetJen- at Rome, two of them were sacrificed to Mars in the Campus Martins by the pontifices and the flamen Martialis, and their heads were stuck up at the regia. (Dion Cass. xlii. 24.)
A second kind of bloody sacrifices were those of animals of various kinds, according to the nature and character of the divinity. The sacrifices of animals were the most, common among the Greeks and Romans. The victim was called ifpetov, and in Latin liostia or victim a. In the early times it appears to have been the general custom to burn the whole victim (oAo«aur€?v) upon the altars of the gods, and the same was in some cases also observed in later times (Xenoph. Anal), vii. 8. § 5), and more especially in sacrifices to the gods of the lower world, and suca as were offered to atone for some crime that had been committed. (Apollon. Rhod. iii. 1030, 1209.) But as early as the time of Homer it was the almost general practice to burn only the legs (^pol^ jurjp/a, /-trjpa) enclosed iu fat, and certain parts of the intestines, while the remaining parts of the victim were consumed by men at a festive meal. The gods delighted chiefly in the smoke arising from the burning victims, and the greater the number-of victims,, the more pleasing was the sacrifice. Hence it was not.uncommon to offer a sacrifice of one hundred bulls (e/caroTtg??) at once, though it must not be supposed that a hecatomb always signifies a sacrifice of a hundred bulls, for the name was used in a general way to designate any great sacrifice. Such great sacrifices were not less pleasing to men than to the gods, for in regard to the former they were ia reality a donation of meat. Hence at Athens the partiality for such sacrifices rose to. the highest degree. (Athen. i. p. 3 ; comp. Bockh, Publ. Econ. p. 21], &c.) Sparta, on the other hand, was less extravagant in sacrifices, and while in other Greek states it was necessary that a victim should be healthy, beautiful, and uninjured, the Spartans were not very scrupulous in this respect. (Plat, Alc$. ii, p. 14.9.) The animals which were sacrificed were mostly of the domestic kind, as bulls, cows, sheep, rams,' lambs, goats, pigs dogs, and horses ; but fishes are also mentioned as pleasing to certain gods. (Athen. vii. p.. S970 Each god had his favourite animals which he liked best as sacrifices ; but it may be considered as a general rule, that those animals which weire sacred to a god were not sacrificed to him, though horses were sacrificed to Poseidon notwithstanding this usage. (Pans, viii. 7. § 2,.) The head of the victim before it was killed was in most cases strewed with roasted barley meal (ouA.o%uTa or ouA,ax^TCtO mixed with salt (mola salsa}. The Athenians used for this purpose enly barley grown in the Rharian plain. (Paus. i. 38. § 6*} The persons who offered the sacrifice wore generally garlands round their heads and sometimes also carried them in their hands. 1 and before they touched anything belonging to the
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