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see the old treaty "between the Eleians and He-raeans—'A Fparpa, between the two, commemorated in the valuable inscription still preserved, — as ancient, according to Bbckh,as Olym. 40—60 (Bockh, Corp. Inscript. No. ii. p. 26, part i.). The words of Tyrtaeus imply such a contract between the contracting parties : first the kings, then the sena-tus, lastly the people,— evOeias pi\rpais avTaira/j,€i-gojiieVovs,—where the participle last occurring appl ies not to the people alone, but to all the three. The Rhetra of Lycurgus emanated from the Delphian god : but the kings, senators, and people all bound themselves, both to each other and to the gods to obey it." (Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. ii. p. 462 ; for a different explanation of the word, see Thiii-wall, Hist, of Greece^ vol. i. p. 335, 2d ed.)
RHYTON (pvr6v), a drinking-horn (/cepas), by which name it was originally called, is said by Athe-naeus (xi. p. 497, b) to have been first made under Ptolemy Philadelphia; but it is even mentioned in Demosthenes (c. Mid. p. 565. 29), as Athenaeus himself also remarks. The oldest and original form of this drinking-horn was probably the horn of the ox, but one end of it was afterwards ornamented with the heads of various animals and birds. We frequently find representations of the f>vr6v on ancient vases depicting symposia. Several specimens of these drinking-horns have also been discovered at Pompeii (Museo Borbonieo, vol. viii. 14, v. 20): representations of two of these are given in the annexed cut.
The fivTov had a small opening at the bottom, which the person who drank put into his mouth, and allowed the wine to run in : hence it derived its name (o>j>o/.ia<r0cu t€ ajrb r^s piKrews, Athen. xi. p. 497, e). We see persons using the pvr6v in this way in ancient paintings. (Pitt. d^Ercol. v. t. 46 ; Zahn, Omam.und Wandgem. t. 90.) Martial (ii. 35) speaks of it under the name of Rhytium. (Becker, ChariMes, vol. i. p. 505.)
RICFNIUM, RECI'NIUM or RECINUS,an article of dress. The name was according to Festus (?. v.) applied to any dress consisting of a square piece of cloth. It occurs in a fragment of the Twelve Tables (Cic. de Leg. ii. 23), and the^ ancient commentators according to Festus explained the word there-as a toga for women (if the reading Ver. togam be right instead of virilem togani}^ with a purple stripe in front. That it was an article of female dress, and more especially a small and short kind of pallium, is stated by Nonius (xiv. 33) on the authority of Varro. It was worn in grief and mourning, and in such a manner that one half of it was thrown back (Varro, de Ling. Lat. v. 132 ; Serv. ad Aen. i. 286 ; Isidor. "Oriff. xix. 25), whence the ancient grammarians derive the word from rfijicere, although it is manifestly a derivative from rtca, which was a covering of the head used
by females. (Varro, I. c. ; Fest, s. v. Rica.} The grammarians appear themselves to have had no clear idea of the ricinium ; but after careful exami' nation of the passages above referred to, it appears to have been a kind of mantle, with a sort of cowl attached to it, in order to cover the head. It was also worn by mimes upon the stage (Fest. I. c. and s. v. Orchestra^ and the mavortium, mavorte, or mavors of later times was thought to be only an other name for what had formerly been called rici nium. [L. S.j
ROBIGALIA, a public festival in honour of the god Robigus to preserve the fields from mildew, is said to have been instituted by Numa, and was celebrated a. d. vii. Kal. Mai. (April 25th). (Plin. //. N. xviii. 29. s. 69 ; Varro, Re Rust. i. 1. p. 90, ed. Bip., Ling. Lat. vi. 16, ed. Mull..; Festus, s. n) The sacrifices offered on this occasion consisted of the entrails of a dog and a sheep, accompanied with frankincense and wine : a prayer was presented by a flamen in the grove of the ancient deity, whom Ovid and Columella make a goddess. (Ovid. Fast. iv. 907—942 ; Colum. x, 342.) A god Robigus or a goddess Robigo is a mere invention from the name of this festival, for the Romans paid no divine honours to evil deities. (Hartunir, Die Religion der Romer, vol. ii. p. 148.) ROBUR. [carcer, p. 241, a.] ROGA'TIO. [lex, p. 682.] ROGATO'RES. [dikibitokes.] ROGUS. [FuNus, p. 559, b.] ROMPHEA. [hasta, p. 589, a.] RORA'RII. [ExERciTus, pp. 495, 502, b.J ROSTRA, or The Beaks, was the name applied to the stage (sugyestus) in the Forum, from which the orators addressed the people. This stage was originally called templum (Liv. ii. 56), because it was consecrated by the augurs, but it obtained its name of Rostra fit the conclusion of the great Latin war, when it was adorned with the beaks (rostra} of the ships of the Antiates, (Liv. viii. 14 ; Flor. i. 11 ; Plin. //« N. xxxiv. 5. s. 11.) The Greeks also mutilated galleys in the same way for the purpose of trophies; this was called by them
The Rostra lay between the Comitium or place of meeting for the curies, and the Forum or place of meeting for the tribes, so that the speaker might turn either to the one or the other ; but down to the time of C. Gracchus, even the tribunes in speaking used to front the Comitium ; he first turned his back to it and spoke with his face towards the forum. (Niebuhr, 'Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 426, note 990.) The form of the Rostra has been well described by Niebuhr (vol. iii. p. 144, note 268) and Bunsen (quoted by Arnold, Hist, of Rome, vol. ii. p. 164): the latter supposes "that it was a circular building, raised on arches, with a stand or platform on the top bordered by a parapet ; the access to it being by two flights of steps, one on each side. It fronted towards the comitium, and the rostra were affixed to the front of it, just under the arches. Its form has been in all the main points preserved in the amhone.s, or circular pulpits, of the most ancient churches, which also had two flights of steps leading up to thenf, one on the east side, by which the preacher ascended, and another on the west side, for his descent. Specimens of these old churches are still to be seen at Rome in the churches of St. Clement and S. Lorenzo fuori le mure." The speaker was thus
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