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we learn from the paintings in their tombs, caught birds in clap-nets. ( Wilkinson, Man. and Oust. vol. iii. pp. 35—38, 45.)
II. In hunting it was usual to extend nets in a curved line of considerable length, so as in part to surround a space into which the beasts of chace, such as the hare, the boar, the deer, the lion, and the bear, were driven through the opening left on one side. (Aelian, II. A. xii. 46 ; Tibullus, iv. 3. 12 ; Plin. H. N. xix. 2. § 2.) This range of nets was flanked by cords, to which feathers dyed scarlet and of other bright colours were tied, so as to flare and flutter in the, wind. The hunters then sallied forth with their dogs, dislodged the animals from their coverts, and by shouts and barking drove them first within the formido^ as the apparatus of string and feathers was called, and then, as they were scared with this appearance, within the circuit of the nets. Splendid descriptions of this scene are given in some of the following passages, all of which allude to the spacious enclosure of net-work. (Virg, Georg. iii. 411—413, A en. iv. 121, 151—159, x. 707—715 ; Ovid. Epist. iv. 41, 42, v. 19, 20 ; Oppian, Cyn. iv. 120—123 ; Eurip. Baccliac, 821—832.) The accompanying woodcuts are taken from two bas-reliefs in the collection of ancient marbles at Ince-Blundell in Lancashire. In the uppermost figure three servants with staves carry on their shoulders a large net, which is in-
tended to be setup as already described. (Tibullus, i. 4. 49, 50 ; Sen. Hippol. i. 1. 44 ; Propert iv. 2. 32.) The foremost servant holds by a leash a dogj which is eager to pursue the game. In the middle figure the net is set up* At each end of it stands a watchman holding a staff. (Oppian, Cyneg. iv.
124.) Being intended to take such large quadrupeds as boars and deer (which are seen within it), the meshes are very wide (retia retro,) Virg. Aen. iv. 131 ; Hor. Epod-. ii. 33). The net is supported by three stakes (ffrd\iK€Sj Oppian, Cyneg. iv. 67, &c. ; Pollux, v. 31 ; ancones, Gratius, Cyneg. 87 ; vari, Lucan^ iv. 439). To dispose the nets in this manner was called retia ponere (Virg. Georg. i. 307), or retia tendere (Ovid. Art. Amat. i. 45). Comparing it with the stature of the attendants, we perceive the net to be between five and six feet high. The upper border of the net consists of a strong rope$ which was called (rapdwv. (Xen. de Venal, vi. 9.) The figures in the following woodcut represent two men carrying the net home after the chace ; the stakes for supporting it, two of which they hold in their hands, are forked at the top, as is expressed by the terms for them already quoted, ancones and vari.
Besides the nets used to inclose woods and coverts or other large tracts of country two additional kinds are mentioned by those authors who treat on
hunting. All the three are mentioned together by Xenophon (Si'/crua, eVoSm, apitves, ii. 4), and by Nemesianus (Cyneg. 299, 300).
The two additional kinds were placed at intervals in the same circuit with the large hunting-net or have. The road-net (plaga, eW5<o*/) was much less than the others, and was placed across roads and narrow openings between bushes. The purse-or tunnel-net (eassis, a/>/cus) was made with a bag (Ke/cpfyaAo*, Xen. de Venat. vi. 7), intended to receive the animal when chased towards the extremity of the inclosure. Within this bag, if we may so call it, were placed branches of trees, to keep it expanded and to decoy the animals by making it invisible. The words apavs or cassis are used metaphorically to denote some certain method of destruction, and are more particularly applied, as well as a^i€\nffTpojf, which will 'be explained immediately, to the large shawl in which Clytem-nestra enveloped her husband in order to murder him. (Aeschyl. Again. 1085, 1346,1353, Choepk. 485, jEforoew. 112.)
III. Fishing-nets (aAteim/m Sforuo, Diod. Sic. xvii. 43, p. 193, Wess.) were of six different kinds, which are enumerated by Oppian (Hal. iii. 80 — 82) as follows : — .
t', 7j5J viroxa Trepiyyees, AAAa §6 KLKX-fjcrKovo-i Ka\v/.Lfjt.o,ra.
Of these by far the most common were the a^i€\7](rrpo^ or casting-net (fonda, jaculum, retinaculum} and the aayfivi), i. e. the drag-net, or smn (tragum, Isid. Hisp. Griff, xix. 5 ; tragula, verriculuni). Consequently these two are the only kinds mentioned by Virgil in Georg. i. 141, 142. and ^by Ovid, in Ar. Amat. i. 763, 764. Of the Ka\fyna we find nowhere any further mention. We are also ignorant of the exact form and use of the^ ypfyos, although, its comparative utility may be inferred from the mention of it in conjunction with the sean and casting-net by Artemidorus (ii. 14) and Plutarch (irtp\ tvQvu. vol. v. p. 838, ed. Steph.). We know no more of the ydyyauov. (Hesych. s. v. ; Aeschyl. Again. 352.) The vttox^i was a landing-net, made with a hoop (/cu/cAos) fastened to a pole, and perhaps provided also with the means of closing the circular aperture at the top. (Oppian, Hal. iv. 251.) The metaphorical use of the term a/j.tyLgXyo-rpov has been already mentioned. That it denoted a casting-net may be concluded both from its etymology and from the circumstances in which it is mentioned by various authors. (Hesiod, Scut. Here. 213—215 ; Herod. i. 141 ; Ps. cxli. 10 ; Is. xix. 8 ; Hab. i. 15—17 (LXX. and Vulgate versions) ; St. Matt. iv. 18 ; St. Mark, i. 16.) More especially the casting-net, being always pear-shaped or conical, was suited to the use mentioned under the article conopeum.