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used in sa.cred rites were purified ; but this seems to have been originally a separate festival called Tu-bilustrium (Festus, s. v.; Varro, /. c.), which was celebrated as we know from the ancient Calendars on the 23d of March (a. d. x. Cal. Apr.), and would of course, when the Quinquatrus was extended to five days, fall on the last day of that festival.
As this festival was sacred to Minerva, it seems that women were accustomed to consult fortunetellers and diviners upon this day. (Plant. Mil. iii. 1. 98.) Domitian caused it to lie celebrated every year in his Alban Villa, situated at the foot of the hills of Alba, and instituted a collegium to superintend the celebration, which consisted of the hunting of wild beasts, of the exhibition of plays, and of contests of orators and poets. (Suet. Dom. 4.)
There was also another festival of this name called Quinquatrus Minusculae or Quinquatrus Mi nor es, celebrated on the Ides of June, on which the tibicines went through the city in procession to the temple of Minerva. .(Varro, de Ling. Lat. vi. 17 ; Ovid. Fast. vi. 651, &c. ; Festus, p. 149, ed. Mttller.) .
QUINQUENNALIA, were games instituted liy Nero a. d. 60, in imitation of the Greek festivals, and celebrated like the Greek .TrejraerTjpi'Se? at the end of every four years: they consisted of musical, gymnastic, and equestrian contests, and were called Neronia. (Suet. Ner. 12; Tac. Ann. xiv. 20; Dion Cass. Ixi. 21.) Suetonius and Tacitus (//. cc.) say that such games were first introduced at Rome by Nero. The Quinquennalia, which had previously been instituted both in honour of Julius Caesar (Dion Cass. xliv. 6) and of Augustus (Id. li. 19 ; Suet. Aug. 59, 98), were confined to the towns of Italy and the provinces. The Quinquennalia of Nero appear not to have been celebrated after his time, till they were revived again by Domitian in honour of the Capi-toline Jupiter. (Suet. Dom. 4.)
QUINQUENNALIS. [colonia, p. 318, b.]
QUINQUEREMIS. [navis, p. 785, b.]
QUINQUEVIRI, or five commissioners, were frequently appointed under the republic as extraordinary magistrates to carry any measure into effect. Thus Quinqueviri Mensarii, or public bankers, were occasionally appointed in times of great distress [mensarii] ; the same number of commissioners was sometimes appointed to superintend the formation of a colony, though three (triumviri) was a more common number. [colonia, p. 315, b.] We find too that Qtnnqueviri were created to superintend the repairs of the walls and of the towers of the city (Liv. xxv. 7), as well as for various other purposes.
Besides the extraordinary commissioners of this name, there. were also permanent officers, called Quinqueviri, who were responsible for the safety of the city after sunset, as it was inconvenient for the regular magistrates to attend to this duty at that time : they were first appointed soon after the war with Pyrrhus. (Dig. 1. tit. 2. s. 2. § 31.)
QUIRINALIA, a festival sacred to Quirinus, which was celebrated on the ] 7th of February (a. d. xiii. Cal. Mart.'}, on which day Romulus (Quirinus) was said to have been carried up to ieaven. (Ovid. Fast. ii. 4/5 ;.Festns,s. v.; Varro,
de Liny. Lat. vi. 13, ed. Muller.) This festival was also called Stultorum fcriae, respecting th,o meaning of which see fornacalia.
QUIRITES, QUIRI'TIUM JUS. [Jus, p. 658, a.]
QUORUM BONORUM, INTERDICTUM. The object of this interdict is to give to the Praetorian heres the possession of anything belonging to the hereditas which another possesses pro herede or pro possessore. The name of this Interdict is derived from the introductory words, and it runs as follows: " Ait Praetor : Quorum bonorum ex edicto meo illi possessio data est: quod de his bonis pro herede aut pro possessore possides, pos-sideresve si nihil usucaptum. esset: quod quidem dolo malo fecisti, uti desineres possidere : id illi restituas." The plaintiff is entitled to this Interdict when he has obtained the Bonorum Possessio, and when any one of the four following conditions apply to the defendant.
1. Quod de his bonis pro herede,
2. Aut pro possessore possides,
3. Possideresve si nihil usucaptum esset,
4. Quod quidem dolo malo fecisti, uti desineres possidere.
The two first conditions are well understood*, and apply also to the case of the hereditatis petitio. The fourth condition also applies to the case of the hereditatis petitio and the rei vindicatio ; but instead of " quod quidem " the reading " quodque " has been proposed, which seems to be required;, for No. 4 has no reference to No. 3, but is itself a new condition. The words of No. 3 have caused some difficulty, which may be explained as follows.
In establishing the Bonorum Possessio, the Praetor intended to give to many persons, such as emancipated children and Cognati, the same rights that the heres had ; and his object was to accomplish this effectually. The Roman heres was the representative of the person who had died and left an hereditas, and by virtue of this representative or juristical fiction of the person of the dead having a continued existence in the person of the heres, the heres succeeded to his property and to all hia rights and obligations. In the matter of rights and obligations the Praetor put the bonorum possessor in the same situation as the heres by allowing him to sue in respect of the claims that the deceased had, and allowing any person to sue him in respect of claims against the deceased, in an actio utilis or fictitia. (Ulp. Frag. tit. 28. s. 12 • Gains, iv. 34.) In respect to the property, according to the old law any person might take possession of a thing "belonging to the hereditas, and acquire the ownership of it in a certain time by usuca-pion. ,(Grams, ii. 52—58.) The persons in whose favour the Praetor's edict was made could do this as well as any other person; but if they found any other person in possession of anything belonging to the hereditas, they could neither claim it by the vindicatio, for they were not owners, nor by the hereditatis petitio, for they were not heredes. To meet this difficulty the Interdictum Quorum Bonorum was introduced, the object of which was to aid the Bonorum Possessor in getting the possession (whence the title of the Interdictum adipiscendae possessionis) and so commencing the usucapion,
3 ii 4