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QUAESTOR.

Cat. 55 ; triumviri capitales), and partly to the aediles and tribunes. (aediles, tribuni ; Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome., vol. iii. p. 44 ; Zachariae, Sulla, als Ordner, &c. vol. ii. p. 147, &c.) The quaestores parricidii have not only been confounded with the duumviri perduellionis, but also with the quaestores classic! (Tacit. /. c. • Zonar. vii. 13, &c.), and this probably owing to the fact, that they ceased to be appointed at such an early period, and that the two kinds of quaestors are seldom dis­tinguished in ancient writings by their character­istic epithets. (Becker, Handh. der Rom. Altertk. vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 228, &c.)

The quaestores classici were officers entrusted with the care of the public money. It is established by the clearest possible evidence, that during the kingly period this magistracy did not exist (Liv. iv. 4 ; Plut. Popl. 12), and it would seem that a con­siderable time elapsed after the expulsion of the kings, before this magistracy was instituted. Their distinguishing epithet classici is not mentioned by any ancient writer, except Lydus (De Mag. i. 27), who however gives an absurd interpretation of it. Niebuhr (vol. ii. p. 430) refers it to their having been elected by the centuries ever since the time of Va­lerius Publicola, who is said to have first instituted the office. (Pint. Pull. 12.) They were at first only two in number, and of course taken only from the patricians. As the senate had the supreme administration of the finances, the quaestors were in some measure only its agents or paymasters, for they could not dispose of any part of the public money without being directed by the senate. Their duties consequently consisted in making the neces­sary payments from the aerarium, and receiving the public revenues. Of both they had to keep correct accounts in their tabulae pullicae. (Polyb. vi. 13.) Demands which any one might have on the aerarium, and outstanding debts were likewise registered by them. (Pseudo-Ascon. in Verrin. p. 158, Orelli ; Plut. Cat. Min. 27.) Fines to be paid to the public treasury were registered and ex­acted by them. (Liv. xxxviii. 60 ; Tacit. Annal. xiii. 28.) Another branch of their duties, which however was likewise connected with the treasury, was to provide the proper accommodations for foreign ambassadors and such persons as were con­nected with the republic by ties of public hos­pitality. Lastly they were charged with the care of the burials and "monuments of distinguished men, the expenses for which had been decreed by the senate to be defrayed by the treasuiy. In the aerarium, and consequently under the superintend­ence of the quaestors, were kept the books in which the senatus-consulta were registered (Joseph. Ant. Jud. xiv. 10. 10 ; Plut. Cat. Min. 17), while the original documents were in the keeping of the aediles, until Augustus transferred the care of them also to the quaestors. (Dion Cass. liv. 36.)

In the year b. c. 421 the number of quaestors was doubled, and the tribunes tried to effect by an amendment of the law that a part (probably two) of the quaestores should be plebeians. (Liv. iv. 43 ; Niebuhr, vol. ii. p. 430, &c.) This attempt was in­deed frustrated, but the interrex L. Papirius effected a compromise, that the election should not be re­stricted to either order. After this law was car­ried, eleven years passed without any plebeian being elected to the office of quaestor, until in b. c. 409, three of the four quaestors were plebeians. (Liv. iv. 51.) A person who had held the office

QUAESTOR. 981

of quaestor had undoubtedly, as in later times, the right to take his seat in the senate, unless he was excluded as unworthy by the next censors. And this was probably the reason why the patricians so determinately opposed the admission of plebeians to this office. [senatus.] Henceforth the con­suls, whenever they took the field against an enemy, were accompanied by .one quaestor each, who at first had only to superintend the sale of the booty, the produce of which was either divided among the legion, or was transferred to the aerarium. (Liv. iv. 53.) Subsequently however we find that these quaestors also kept the funds of the arnry, which they had received from .the treasury at Rome, and gave the. soldiers their pay ; they were in fact the pay-masters in the army. (Polyb. vi. 39.) The two other quaestors, who remained at Rome, continued to discharge the same duties as before, and were distinguished from those who accompanied the consuls by the epithet urbani. la the year b.c. 265, after the Romans had made themselves masters of Italy, and when, in conse­quence, the administration of the treasuryvand'the-raising of the revenues became more, laborious and important, the number of quaestors was again doubled to eight (Lyd. de Mag. i. 27 ; Liv. Epit. lib. 15 ; Niebuhr, vol. iii. p. 645) ; and it is pro-, bable that henceforth their number continued to be increased in proportion as the empire became ex­tended. One of the eight quaestors .was appointed by lot to the quaestura ostiensis, a most laborious and important post, as he ; had to provide Rome with corn. . (Cic. pro Muren. 8, pro Sesct. 17.) Besides the quaestor ostiensis, who resided at Ostia, three other quaestors were distributed in Italy to raise those parts of the revenue which, were not farmed by the publicani, and to control the latter. One of them resided, at Gales, and'the two others probably in towns on the Upper Sea. (Cic. in Vat. 5.) The two remaining quaestors, who were sent to Sicil}^, are spoken of below.

Sulla in his dictatorship raised the number of. quaestors to twenty, that he might have .a large number of candidates for the senate (senatui ex-. plendo, Tacit. Annal. xi. 22), and Julius Caesar even to forty. (Dion Cass. xliii. 47, 51.) In the year b. c. 49 no quaestors were elected, and Caesar transferred the keeping of the aerarium to the aediles. From this time forward the treasury was sometimes entrusted to the praetors, sometimes to the praetorii, and sometimes again to quaestors. [aerarium.] Quaestors however, both in. the city and in the provinces, occur down to the latest period of the empire. Some of them bore the title of candidati principis, and their only: duty was to read in the senate the communications which the princeps had to make to this assembly (lihti principales, epistolae principis, Dig. 1. tit. 13. §2 and 4 ; Lyd. de Mag. i. 28 ; Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 43 ; Plin. Epist. vii. 16). From the time of the emperor Claudius all quaestors,' on entering their office, were obliged to give gladiatorial games to the people, at their own expense, whereby the office became inaccessible to any one except the wealthiest individuals. (Suet. Claud. 24 ; Tacit. Annal. I.e. xiii. 5 ; Suet. Domit. 4 ; ; Lamprid. Alex. Sev..43.) When Constantinople had be­come the second capital of the empire,;it received like Rome its quaestors, who had to -give games to the people on entering, upon their office ; but they were probablv, like the praetors, elected by

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