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On this page: Pupilla – Pupillaris Substitutio – Puppis – Puteal – Putfculae – Pyanetsia – Pycnostylos – Pyelus – Pygme – Pygon – Pylagorae – Pyra – Pyrgus – Pyrrhica – Pythia



Servius, in Virg. Georg. iii. 533.) There was also a pulvinar, on which the images of the gods were laid, in the Circus. (Sueton. August. 45, Claud. -L) [J. Y.j


PUPILLA, PUPILLUS. [!mpubes ; in-



PUPPIS. [NAvis, p. 787, a.]

PUTEAL, properly means the enclosure sur­rounding the opening of a well, to protect persons from falling into it. It was either round or square, and seems usually to have been of the height of three or four feet from the ground. There is a round one in the British Museum, made of marble, which was found among the ruins of one of Tiberius's villas in Capreae ; it exhibits five groups of fauns and bacchanalian nymphs ; and around the edge at the top may be seen the marks of the ropes used in drawing up water from the well. Such putealia seem to have been common in the Roman villas : the putealia signata, which Cicero (ad Att. i. 10) wanted for his Tusculan villa, must have been of the same kind as the one in the Biitish Museum ; the signata refers to its being adorned with figures. It was the practice in some cases to surround a sacred place with an enclosure open at the top, and such enclosures from the great similarity they bore to Pulealia were called by this name. There was a Puteal of this kind at Ptome, called Puteal Scribonianum or Puteal LiboniS) which is often exhibited on coins of the Scribonia gens, and of which a specimen is given below. The puteal is on the reverse of the coin adorned with garlands and two lyres. It is gene­rally stated that there were two putealia in the Roman forum ; but C. F. Hermann, who has care­fully examined all the passages in the ancient writers relating to this matter (hid. Led. Mar-burg, 1840), comes to the conclusion that there was only one such puteal at Rome. It was in the forum, near the Arcus Fabianus, and was dedi­cated in very ancient times either on account of the whetstone of the Augur Navius (comp. Liv. i. 36), or because the spot had been struck by light­ning. It was subsequently repaired and re-dedi­cated by Scribonius Libo, who had been com­manded to examine the state of the sacred places (Festus, s. v. Scribonianuiii). Libo erected in its neighbourhood a tribunal for the praetor, in con­sequence of which the place was, of course, fre­quented by persons who had law-suits, such as money-lenders and the like. (Comp. Hor. Sat. ii. 6. 35, Epist. i. 19. 8 ; Ov. Reined. Amor. 561 ; Cic. pro Sex. 8 ; C. F. Hermann, /. c.)

PUTFCULAE, PUTFCULI. [funus, p. 560, b.]

PYANETSIA (irva,vfyia\ a festival cele­brated at Athens every year on the seventh of Py-anepsion, in honour of Apollo. (Harpocrat, Hesych. Siadas. s. v. llvavtyia.) It was said to have been


instituted by Theseus after his return from Crete. (Plut. Tkes. 22.) The festival as well as the month in which it took place, are said to have de­ rived their names from Truc^uos1, another form for ita/Aos, i. e. pulse or beans, which were cooked at this season and carried about. (Harp, and Suid. I. c. ; Athen. ix. p. 408.) A procession appears to have taken place at the Pyanepsia., in which the elpecriwvri was carried about. This tlpfxri'Jovri was an olive- branch surrounded with wool and laden with the fruits of the year ; for the festival was in reality a harvest feast. It was carried by a boy whose parents were still living, and those who followed him sang certain verses, which are preserved in Plutarch. (I. c. ; compare Clem. Alex. Strom. iv. p. 474 ; Eustath. ad 11. xxii. ; Suid. s. v. Etpetncoyr? ; and Etymol. Mag. where a different account is given.) The procession went to a temple of Apollo, and the olive-branch was planted at its entrance. Ac­ cording to others, every Athenian planted, on the day of the Pyanepsia, such an olive branch before his own house, where it was left standing till the next celebration of the festival, when it was ex­ changed for a fresh one. (Schol. ad Aristoplt, Plut. 1050.) [L. S.]

PYCNOSTYLOS. [templum.]

PYELUS (TrueAos). [funus, p. 555, b.]

PYGME. [mensura, p. 752, a.]

PYGON. [mensura, p. 752, a.]

PYLAGORAE (irvXayopcu). [amphictyo-nes, p. 80, b.]

PYRA. [funus, p. 559, b.]

PYRGUS (Trupyos), a tower. 1. The towers used in fortification and in war are spoken of under turris. 2. An army drawn up in a deep oblong column. [turris, No. VI.] 3. A dice-box, so called from its resemblance to a tower [fri-tillus.]. 4. The territory of the town of Teos was distributed among a certain number of towers (TTL'pyoi), to each of which corresponded a sym-mory or section of the citizens (Bockh, Corp. Inscr. No. 3064 ; and the elucidations of Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. iii. pp. 247, 248).

PYRRHICA. [saltatio.]

PYTHIA (™0ia), one of the four great na­tional festivals of the Greeks. It was celebrated in the neighbourhood of Delphi, anciently called Pytho, in honour of Apollo, Artemis, and Leto. The place of this solemnity was the Crissaean plain, which for this purpose contained a hippo-dromus or race-course (Paus. x. 37. § 4), a stadium of 1000 feet in length (Censorin. de Die Nat. 13), and a theatre, in which the musical contests took place. (Lucian, adv. indoct. 9.) A gymnasium, prytaneium, and other buildings of this kind, pro­bably existed here, as at Olympia, although they are not mentioned. Once the Pythian games were held at Athens, on the advice of Demetrius Polior-cetes (01. 122. 3 ; see Plut. Demetr. 40 ; Corsini, Fast. Ait. iv. p. 77), because the Aetolians were in possession of the passes around Delphi.

The Pythian games were, according to most legends, instituted by Apollo himself (Ath n. xv. p. 701 ; Schol. Argum. ad Pind. Pyth.) : other traditions referred them to ancient heroes, such as Amphictyon, Adrastus, Diomedes, and others. They were originally perhaps nothing more than a religious panegyris, occasioned by the oracle of Delphi, and the sacred games are said to have been at first only a musical contest, which con­sisted in singing a hymn to the honour of th.e

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