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with regular pugilists they were generally much mutilated and broken. (Plat. Gorg. p. 516 ; Protag. p. 342 ; Martial, vii. 32. 5.) Hence in works of art the ears of the pancratiasts always appear beaten flat, and although swollen in some parts, are yet smaller than ears usually are. In order to protect the ears from severe blows, little covers, called a^ucpomSes-, were invented. (Pollux, ii. 82 ; Etymol. Mag. s. v.} But these ear-covers which, according to the Etymologist, were made of brass, were undoubtedly never used in the great public games, but only in the gymnasia and palaestrae, or at most in the public contests of boxing for boys ; they are never seen in any ancient work of art.
The game of boxing, like all the other gymnastic and athletic games, was regulated by certain rules. Thus pugilists were not allowed to take hold of one another, or to use their feet for the purpose of making one another fall, as was the case in the pancratium. (Pint. Symp; ii. 4 ; Lu-cian, Anach. 3.) Cases of death either during the fight itself or soon after, appear to have occurred rather frequently (Schol. ad Find. OL v. 34), but if a fighter wilfully killed his antagonist, he was severely punished. (Pans. viii. 40. § 3, vi. 9. § 3.) If both the combatants were tired without wishing to give up the fight, they might pause a while to recover their strength ; and in some cases they are described as resting on their knees. (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 86 ; Stat. Theb. vi. 796.) If the fight lasted too long, recourse was had to a plan called /cAt^a|, that is, both parties agreed not to move, but to stand still and receive the blows without using any means of defence, except a certain position of the hands. (Eustath. ad II. xxiii. p. 1324 ; Pans. viii. 40. § 3.) The contest did not end until one of the combatants was compelled by fatigue, wounds or despair, to declare himself conquered (a7rayof>eti6ij>, Pans. vi. 10. § 1), which was generally done by lifting up one hand. (Plut. Lycurg. 19.)
The lonians, especially those of Samos, were at all times more distinguished pugilists than the Dorians, and at Sparta boxing is said to have been forbidden by the laws of Lycurgus. (Paus. vi. 2. § 4 ; Plut. Lycurg. 19.) But the ancients generally considered boxing as a useful training for military purposes, and a part of education no less important than any other gymnastic exercise. (Lucian, Anacli. 3 ; Plut. Cat. Maj. 20.) Even in a medical point of view, boxing was recommended as a remedy against giddiness and chronic headaches. (Aretaeus, De Morb. diut. cur. i. 2.)
In Italy boxing appears likewise to have been practised from early times, especially among the Etruscans. (Liv. i. 35 ; Dionys. vii. 72) It continued as a popular game during the whole period of the republic as well as of the empire. (Suet. Aug. 45 ; Cic. De Leg. ii. 15, 18 ; Tacit. Annal. xvi. 21 ; Suet. Calig. 18.) See Krause, Die Gymnastik und Agon. d. Plellehen^ pp. 497— 534. [L.S.]
PUGIO (juc£%a</9a, dim. juaxafynop i *7X€1P<--5toj/), a dagger ; a two-edged knife, commonly of bronze, with the handle in many cases variously ornamented or enriched, sometimes made of the hard black wood of the Syrian terebinth. (Theophr. H. P. v. 3. § 2.) The accompanying woodcut shows thrde ancient daggers. The two upper figures are
copied from Beger (Thes. Brand, vol. iii. pp. 398, 419) : the third represents a dagger about a foot long, which was found in an Egyptian tomb, and is preserved in the Museum at Leyden. The middle figure is entirely of metal. The handles of the two others were fitted to receive a plate of wood on each side. The lowermost has also two bosses of ivory or horn, and shows the remains of a thin plate of gilt metal, with which the wood was covered.
In the heroic ages the Greeks sometimes wore a dagger suspended by the sword on the left side of the body [gladius], and used it on all oc casions instead of a knife. (Horn. II. iii. 271 ; Athen. vi. p. 232, c.) The custom is continued to the present day among the Arnauts, who are de scended from the ancient Greeks. (Dodwell, Tour, vol. i. p. 133.) The Romans (see wood cuts, pp. 2, 554), wore the dagger as the Persians did [acinaces] on the right side, and conse quently drew it with the thumb at the upper part of the hilt, the position most effective for stabbing. The terms pugio and tyxttpio'ioi' denote both its smallness and the manner of grasping it in the hand (tti>£, pugnus). In the same way we must understand " the two swords " (duos gladios, Gell. ix. 13) worn by the Gallic chieftain, slain bv Manlius Torquatus ; and the monuments of the middle ages prove that the custom long continued in our own and in adjoining countries. (See Sto- thard, Mon. Effigies of Gt. Britain.} Among some of the northern nations of Europe, a dirk was con stantly worn on the side, and was in readiness to be drawn on every occasion. (Ovid. Trist. v. 8. 19, 20.) The Chalybes employed the same weapon, stabbing their enemies in the neck. (Xen. Anal. iv. 7. § 16.) For the Greek horsemen the dagger was considered preferable to the long sword as a weapon of offence. (Xen. de Re Equest. xii. 11.) [J.Y.]
PULLARIUS. [augur, p. 176,a.]
PULVFNAR. A representation of the mode of using cushions or pillows (pulvini), to recline upon at entertainments, is given in the wood-cut under symposium. The most luxurious of such cushions were 'stuffed with swan's-down. (Mart, xiv. I 61.) An ancient Egyptian cushion is preserved in the British Museum. In reference to this practice, the Romans were in the habit of placing the statues of the gods upon pillows at the lectisternia, [epulones ; lectisternium.] The couches provided for this purpose in the temples were called pulvinaria. (Hor. Carm. i. 37. 3 ; Ovii. Met. xiv. 827 ; Cic. in Cat. iii. 10, Harusp. 5, Dom. 53, Tv.sc. iv. 2 ; V?J. Max. iii. 7. § 1 >