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PROVINCIA.

annually sent from Home. He was assisted by two Quaestors and was accompanied by a train of praecones, scribae, haruspices, and other persons, who formed his Conors. The Quaestors received from the Roman aerarium the necessary sums for the administration of the island, and they also col­lected the taxes, except those which were let by the Censors at Rome. One quaestor resided at Lilybaeum, and the other with the governor or Praetor at S3Tracusae. The governor could dismiss the quaestors from the province, if they did not conform to his orders, and could appoint Legati to do their duties. The whole island was not treated exactly in the same waj71. Seventeen conquered towns forfeited their land, which was restored on condition of the payment of the decimae and the scriptura. But this restoration must not be understood as meaning that the ownership of the land was restored, for the Roman State became the owner of the land, and the occupiers had at most a Possessio. These taxes or dues were let to farm by the censors at Rome. Three cities, Messana, Tauromenium, and Netum, were made Foederatae Civitates and retained their land. [foederatae civitates.] Five other cities, among which were Panormus and Segesta, were Liberae et Immunes, that is, they paid no decimae; but it does not ap­pear whether they were free from the burdens to which the Foederatae Civitates as such were sub­ject by virtue of their Foedus with Rome. Before the Roman conquest of Sicily, the island had been subject to a payment of the tenth of wine, oil, and other products, the collecting of which had been determined with great precision by a law or re­gulation of King Hiero (Lex Hieronicct). The regulations of Hiero were preserved and these tenths were let to farm by the Quaestors in Sicily to Sicilians and Romans settled in Sicily: the tenths of the first-mentioned towns were let to farm to Romans in Rome. The towns which paid the tenths were called by the general name of Stipendiariae.

For the administration of justice the island was divided into Fora or Conventus, which were terri­torial divisions. Sicilians who belonged to the same town had their disputes settled according to its laws ; citizens of different towns had their dis­putes decided by judices appointed by the go­vernor ; in case of disputes between an individual and a community, the Senate of any Sicilian town might act as judices, if the parties did not choose to have as judices the Senate of their own towns; if a Roman citizen sued a Sicilian, a Sicilian was judex; if a Sicilian sued a Roman citizen, a Ro­man-was judex ; but no person belonging to the Conors of a Praetor could be judex. These were the provisions of the Rupiliae Leges. Disputes between the lessees of the tenths and the Aratores were decided according to the rules of Hiero. (Cic. Verr. ii. 13.) The settlement of the Municipal constitution of the towns was generally left to the citizens ; but in some instances, as in the case of C. Claudius Marcellus and the town of Alesa, a constitution was given by some Roman at the re­quest, as it appears, of the town. The Senate and the People still continued as the component parts of the old Greek cities. Cicero mentions a body of 130 men called censors who were appointed to take the census of Sicily every five years, after tiie fashion of the Roman census (in Verr. ii. 55 &c.) The island was also bound to furnish

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PROVINCIA.

and maintain soldiers and sailors for the service of Rome, and to pay tributum for the carrying on of wars. The governor could take provisions for the use of himself and his cohors on condition of pay­ing for them. The Roman State had also the-Portoria which were let to farm to Romans at Rome.

The governor had complete Jurisdictio in the island with the Imperium and Potestas. He could delegate these powers to his quaestors, but there was always an appeal to him, and for this and other purposes he made circuits through the dif­ferent Conventus.

Such was the organization of Sicilia as a pro­vince, which may be taken as a sample of the general character of Roman provincial government. Sicily obtained the Latinitas from C. Julius Caesar, and the Civitas was given after nis death (Cic. ad AU. xiv. 12) ; but notwithstanding this there re­mained some important distinctions between Sicily and Italy. The chief authority for this account of the Provincial organization of Sicily is the Verrine orations of Cicero.

Hispania was formed into two Provinces, Citerior or Tarraconensis between the Iberus and the Pyrenees, and Ulterior or Baetica south of the Iberus. Hispania Citerior was divided into seven Conventus, — Carthaginiensis, Tarraconensis, Cae-saraugustanus, Cluniensis, Asturum, Lncensis, and Bracarum. The diversity of the condition of the several parts of the Province appears from the enumeration of Coloniae, Oppida Civium Roma-norum, Latini veteres, Foederati, Oppida Stipen­diaria. Hispania Baetica was divided into four Juridici conventus, — Gaditanus, Cordubensis, Astigitanus, Hispalensis. The oppida consisted of Coloniae, Municipia, Latio antiquitus donata, whicli appear to be equivalent to Latini veteres, Libera, Foederata, Stipendiaria. (Plin.//. A^.iii. 1,3.) The Provincia of Lusitania was divided into three Con­ventus,— Emeritensis, Pacensis, and Scalobitanus. The classes of Oppida enumerated are Coloniae, Municipia Civium Romanorum^OppidaLatii antiqui or veteris, Stipendiaria. (Plin. H.N.iv. 22.) This example will give some idea of the Roman mode of administering a province for judicial purposes. AH Hispania received the Latinitas from Vespasian. (Plin. H. A7, ii. 3.) The province paid a fixed vecti-gal or land-tax in addition to the tributum which was collected by Praefecti, and in addition to being-required to deliver a certain quantity of corn. And the Praetor had originally the right to purchase a twentieth part at what price he pleased, (Liv. xliii, 2 ; compare Tacit. Agric. 19 ; and Cic. in Verr. \\i. 81, de aestimaio frumento.}

This organization was not confined to the Western Provinces. In Asia, for instance, there was a Smyrnaeus Conventus which was frequented by a great part of Aeolia ; the term conventus was applied both to the territorial division made for the administration of justice and also to the chief city or place " in quern conveniebant." Ephesus gave name to another Conventus. As the Con­ventus were mainly formed for judicial purposes, the term Jurisdictio is sometimas used as an equi­valent. Thus Pliny (H.N. v. 29) speaks of the Sardiana Jurisdictio, which is the same as Sar-dianus conventus.. The object of this division is further shown by such phrases as *4 eodem discep-tant foro," " Tarracone disceptant populi xliii."

Strabo remarks (xiii. p. 629) that the boundaries

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