The Ancient Library

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On this page: Promissor – Promnestriae – Promulsis – Promus – Pronaos – Pronubae – Prophetes – Propnigeum – Propraetor – Proprietas – Propylaea – Prora – Proscenium – Prosclfsis – Proscriptio – Trimonium


vals, which were held with a torch.-rnce in the Ceramicus (Harpocrat. /. c.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 131 ; comp. lampadephoria), for which the gymnasiarchs had to supply the youths from the gymnasia. Prometheus himself was believed to have instituted this torch-race, whence he was called the torch bearer. (Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 15 ; Eurip. Phoeniss. 1139 ; Philostrat. Vit. Sophist, ii. 20.) The torch-race of the Prometheia commenced at the so-called altar of Prometheus in the aca- demia (Paus. i. 30. § 2 ; Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 53), or in the Ceramicus, and thence the youths with their torches raced to the city. (Welcker, Die Aescliyl Trilog. p. 120, &c.) [L. S.]

PROMISSOR. [obligationes, p. 817, b.]

PROMNESTRIAE (irpo^vncrrpiai). [MA-

TRIMONIUM, p. 736, b.]

PROMULSIS. [coena, p. 307, a.]

PROMUS. [cella ; servus.]

PRONAOS. [templum.]

PRONUBAE, PRO'NUBI. [matrimo-nium, pp. 74.3, b, 744, a.]

PROPHETES, PROPHE'TIS. [oraculum, p. 837, a.]

PROPNIGEUM. [balneae, p. 192, b.]

PROPRAETOR. [provincia.]

PROPRIETAS. [dominium.j

PROPYLAEA (TTpoTruAcua), the entrance to a temple, or sacred enclosure, consisted of a gate­way flanked by buildings, whence the plural form of the word., The Egyptian temples generally had magnificent propylaea^ consisting of a pair of oblong truncated pyramids of solid masonry, the faces of which were sculptured with hieroglyphics. (See Herod, ii. 63, 101, 121, and other passages ; the modern works on Egyptian antiquities ; the Atlas to Kugler's Kunstgeschichte, sect. 1. pi. 5. fig. 1.)

In Greek, except when the Egyptian temples are spoken of, the word is generally used to signify the entrance to the Acropolis of Athens, which was the last completed of the great works of architecture executed tinder the administration of Pericles. The building of the Propylaea occu­pied five years, b.c. 437—432, and cost 2012 talents. The name of the architect was Mnesicles. (Pint. Per. 13 ;. Thuc. ii. 13, with Poppo's Notes ; Aristoph. Equit. 1326 ; Demosth. de Rep. Ord. 28. p. 174. 23, ed. Bekker ; HarpoeraL Suid. s. v. ; Cic. de Off. ii. 17.) The edifice was of the Doric order, and presented in front the appearance of a hexastyle portico of white marble, with the central intercolumniation wider than the rest} and with two advanced wings, containing chamber^ the northern one of which (that on the left hand) was adorned with pictures, which are fully described by Pausanias (i. 22. §§ 4—7), and among which were works by Polygnotus, and,, probably,, by Protogenes. (See Diet, of Biog. s. vt.) On the right hand, and in front of the Propylaea, stood the temple of Nike Apteros, and close to the en­trance the statue of Hermes Pfopijlaeits j and the Propylaea themselves were adorned with numerous statues. (Paus. I.e.} A broad road led straight from the Agora to the Propylaea^ which formed the only entrance to the Acropolis, and the imme­diate approach to which was by a flight of steps, in the middle of which there was left an inclined plane, paved with Pentelic marble, as a carriage­way for the processions. Both ancient and modern writers have agreed in considering the Propylaea as one of the most perfect works of Grecian art.



(For fuller descriptions and restored views, see Stuart, ii. 5 ; Leake, Topog. c. 8 ; Mtiller, Ar-chaol. d. Kunst, § 109. n. 1, 3 ; and a beautiful elevation and plan in the Atlas to Kugler's Kunst-gescliiclite, sect. 2. pi. 3. figs. 12, 13.)

The, great temple at Eleusis had- two sets of propylaea, the smaller forming the entrance of the inner enclosure (TrepigoAos), and the greater, ol' the outer. The latter were an exact copy of the Athenian propylaea. (Miiller, I.e. n. 5.) There were also propylaea at Corinth, surmounted by two chariots of gilt bronze, the one carrying Phae- thon, and the other the Sun himself. (Paus. ii. 3. § 2.) [P. S.]

PRORA. [navis, p. 786, a.]

PROSCENIUM. [theatrum.]

PROSCLFSIS (-n7)o07cA77<m). [DiKE.]

PROSCRIPTIO. The verb proscribes pro­ perly signifies to exhibit a thing for sale by means of a bill or advertisement: in this sense it occurs in a great many passages. But in the time of Sulla it assumed a very different meaning, for he applied it to a measure of his own invention (Veil. Pat. ii. 28), namely, to the sale of the property of those who were put to death at his command, and who were themselves called proscripti. Towards the end of the year 82 b. c. Sulla, after his return from Praeneste, declared before the assembly of the people that he would improve their condition, and punish severely all those who had supported the party of Marius. (Appian. B. G. i. 95.) The people appear tacitly to have conceded to him all the power which he wanted for the execution of his design, for the lex Cornelia de proscriptione et proscriptis wras sanctioned afterwards when he was made dictator. (Cic. de Leg. i. 15, de Leg. Agr. iii. 2, &c.; Appian. B. C. i. 98.) This law, which was proposed by the interrex L. Valerius Flaccus at the command of Sulla, is sometimes called lex Cornelia (Cic. c. Verr. i. 47), and sometimes lex Valeria. Cicero (pro Rose. Am. 43) pretends not to know whether he should call it a lex Cornelia or Valeria. (Comp. Schol. Gronov. p. 435, ed. Orelli.)

Sulla drew up a list of the persons whom he wished to be killed; and this list was exhibited in the forum to public inspection. Every person contained in it was an outlaw, who might be killed by any one who met him with impunity, even by his slaves arid his nearest relatives. All his property was taken and publicly sold. It may naturally be supposed that such property was sold at a very low price^ and was in most cases pur­chased by the friends and favourites of Sulla ; in some instances only a part of the price was paid at which it had been purchased. (Sallust, Fragm. p. 238, ed. Gerlach.) The property of those wrho had fallen in the ranks of his enemies was sold in the same manner- (Cic. pro Rose. Am. 43.) Those who killed a proscribed person, or gave notice of his place of concealment, received two talents as a reward ; and whoever concealed or gave shelter to a proscribed, was punished with death. (Cic. c. Verr. i. 47, Plut. Sull. 31 ; Suet. Caes. 11.) But this was not all ; the proscription was regarded as a corruption of blood, and • consequently the sons and grandsons of proscribed persons were for ever excluded from all public offices. (Pint. I. c. • Veil. Pat. ii. 28;. Quinctil. xi. 1. 85.)

After this .example of a proscription had once been set, it was readily adopted by those in power

3 Q 2

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