The Ancient Library

Scanned text contains errors.

On this page: Proedri – Proefsphora – Proeisphoras Dike – Proeliales Dies – Proerosia – Profesti Dies – Progameia – Proix – Proletarii – Prometheia



trials for constructive treason at Athens was that of Leocrates, who left the city after the defeat at Chaeroneia, and was prosecuted "by Lycurgus for desertion of his country. The speech of Lycurgus is preserved to us, and is a good specimen of his eloquence. The facts of the case are stated in p. 150, ed. Steph. The nature of the charge may be seen from various expressions of the orator, such as irpo^ovs tovs vg&s /cat ra eSrj /cat Tas eV ro7s vojjlqis &vcrias (147), ^ fiot]6'f)<ras rots Trarplots /epcus1, zyicaTaXnr&v tty iroXiv (148), ov €\r)/jL€j/os ouSey els t^]v ttjs Trrf/Vecoy

(153), (pevyoov t}>v virtp ttjs irasrpio'os

(154), and the like. The defence of the accused was, that he did not leave Athens with a traitor­ous intention (e?rl TrpoSotna), but for the purposes of trade (eVt ejjLTropia). (See Argument, and p. 155.)

The ordinary method of proceeding against those who were accused of treason or treasonable prac­tices was by eiffayyehla, as in the case of Leo-crates. ( Pollux, viii. 52.) In some cases a ypaty-f) might be laid before the Thesmothetae. (Demosth. c. Steph. 1137.) We read of an old law, by which the jurisdiction in trials for high treason was given to the archon &affi\€v<>. (Meier, Att. Proc. p. 50.) But it could hardly be expected that in a Greek city state-offences would always be prosecuted ac­cording to the forms of law ; and we find various instances in which magistrates, generals, and others, took a summary method for bringing traitors and conspirators to justice. Thus a certain person, named Antiphon, who had promised Philip to burn the Athenian arsenal, was seized by the council of Areiopagus, and afterwards put to the torture, and condemned to death by the people. (Demosth. pro Cor. 271 ; Aesch. c. Ctes. 89, ed. Steph.) As to the power of the Areiopagus, see further Lycurg. c. Leoc. 154. The people in as­sembly might of course direct any extraordinary measures to be taken against suspected persons, as they did in the affair of the Hermes busts (Thucyd. vi. 60, 61), and by their ^^kt/jlo, might supersede even the form of a trial. So fearful were the Athenians of any attempt to establish a tyranny or an oligarchy, that any person who conspired for such purpose, or any person who held an office under a government which had overthrown the constitution, might be slain with impunity. Every citizen indeed was under an obligation to kill such a person, and for so doing was entitled by law to honours and rewards. (Andoc. de Myst. 12, 13, ed. Steph. ; Lys. atj^u. /caraA. a?roA. 172, ed. Steph.)

The regular punishment appointed by the law for most kinds of treason appears to have been death (Xen. Hellen. i. 7. § 22 ; Demosth. pro Cor. 238 ; Lycurg. c. Lcoc. 148, 152, ed. Steph.), which, no doubt, might be mitigated by decree of the people, as in the case of Miltiades (Herod, vi. 136) and many others. The less heinous kinds of Trpoo'oa'ia were probably punished at the discretion of the court which tried them. (Demosth. c. Timoc. 740, c. Theocr. 1344.) The goods of traitors, who suffered death, were confiscated, and their houses razed to the ground ; nor were they permitted to be buried in the country, but had their bodies cast out in some place on the confines of Attica and Megara. Therefore it was that the bones of The-mistocles, who had been condemned for treason, were brought over and buried secretly by his


friends. (Thucyd. i. 138.) The posterity of a traitor became an/noi, and those of a tyrant were liable to share the fate of their ancestor. (Meursius, Them. Att. ii. 2,15 ; Platner, Proc. und Klag. vol. ii. p. 82 ; Meier, Att. Proc. p. 341,Z)e bo?i. damn. pp. 11—13, 136.) Traitors might be proceeded against even after their death, as we have seen done in modern times. Thus, the Athenians re­ solved to prosecute Phrynichus, who had been most active in setting up the oligarchy of the Four Hundred (rb*/ veitpbv Kpivziv Trpo&ocnas), and also to subject his defenders to the punishment of traitors, in case of a conviction. This was done. Judgment of treason was passed against Phryni­ chus. His bones were dug up, and cast out of Attica ; his defenders put to death ; and his mur­ derers honoured with the freedom of the city. (Thuc. viii. 92 ; Lysias, c. Ac/or. 136 ; Lycurg. c. Leocr. 164, ed. Steph.) , [C. R. K.]

PROEDRI (irpoedpoL). [boule, pp. 210, 212.]

PROEFSPHORA [eisphora.]

PROEISPHORAS DIKE (Trpoeio-Qopas Sf/c??), an action brought by a member of a Symmoria, to recover a rate paid on account of another. The Symmoriae being so arranged, that three hundred of the richest men were selected to form a superior board, responsible to the state in the first instance for the collection of a property tax ; the people passed a decree, in case of need, commanding them to pay the whole tax in advance. These then were entitled to be reimbursed by the remaining nine hundred of the Symmoriae, and each of them probably had a certain number assigned to him by the Strategi for that purpose ; against whom he might bring actions for contribution according to their respective assessments. To recover money so advanced was called irpoeicrfpopav Ko^i^eadai. (Demosth. c. Pantaen. 9775 c. Phaenipp. 1046, c. Polyd. 1208.) This cause, like others relating to the property tax and the trierarchy, belonged to the jurisdiction of the Strategi. (Bockh, PuU. Econ. of Athens^ pp.. 450, 526, 533, 2d ed. ; Meier, Att. Proc. pp. 107, 550.) [C. R. K.]


PROEROSIAor PROERO'SIAE (Trpo^oW or irpoypoffiai) were sacrifices (or, according to other writers, a festival) offered to Demeter at the time when the seeds were sown, for the purpose of obtaining a plentiful harvest. (Suidas, Hesych., Etymol. Mag. s. v.; Arrian in Epictct. iii. 21.) According to Suidas the Athenians performed this sacrifice in 01. 5. on behalf of all the Greeks ; but from all the other accounts it would appear that the Athenians did so at all times, and that the in­ stance mentioned by Suidas is only the first time that proerosia were offered by the Athenians for all the Greeks. They are said to have been insti­ tuted by the command of some oracle at a time when all the world was suffering from scarcity or from a plague. (Suid. s. v. E^etncoj/rj ; compare Lycurg. Fragm. c. Menesaech.) [L. S.]


PROGAMEIA (irpoydpeia). [matrimonium, p. 737, a.]

PROIX (Trpo%). [Dos, p. 436.]

PROLETARII. [caput.]

PROMETHEIA (Trpo/^eia), a festival cele­brated at Athens in honour of Prometheus. (Xe-noph. de Re PuU. Ath. 3. § 4 ; Harpocrat. s. v. Aa/j.-rrds.') The time at which it was solemnised is not known, but it was one of the five Attic festi-

About | First | English Index | Classified Index | Latin Index | Greek Index



page #  
Search this site
All non-public domain material, including introductions, markup, and OCR © 2005 Tim Spalding.
Ancient Library was developed and hosted by Tim Spalding of