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On this page: Probouleuma – Procheirotonia – Proclesis – Proconsul – Tkh



TKHince their verdict on the guilt of the party, and to assess the penalty, which might be death, or

nly a pecuniary fine, according to their discretion. The trial (it seems) was attended with no risk to the prosecutor, who was considered to proceed under the authority of the popular decree. (Meier, Att. Proc. p. 277.) [C. R. K.]

PROBOULEUMA (TrpogouAev^a). [BouLE, p. 210, b.]

• PROBOULI (TrpogovAoi), a name applicable to any persons who are appointed to consult or take measures for the benefit of the people. Thus, the delegates who were sent by the twelve Ionian cities to attend the Panionian council, and deliberate on the affairs of the confederacy, were called irpo-€ov\ot. (Herod, vi. 7.) So were the deputies sent by the several Greek states to attend the congress at the Isthmus, on the occasion of the second Per­sian invasion (Herod, vii. 172) ; and also the en­voys whom the Greeks agreed to send annually to Plataea. (Plutarch, Arist. 21.) The word is also used like vofj.o(jjv\aK€s, to denote an oligarchical body, in whom the government of a state was vested, or who at least exercised a controlling power over the senate and popular assemblies. Such were the sixty senators of Cnidas ; and a similar body appears to have existed at Megara, where, although democracy prevailed at an earlier period, the go­vernment became oligarchical before the beginning of the Peloponnesian war. (Arist. Pol. iv. 12. § 8, vi. 5. § 1 3 ; Miiller, Dor. iii. 9. § 10 ; Wachsmuth, Al-tertk. vol. i. pt. 2. p. 91 ; Schomann, Antiq.jur.publ. p. 82.) A body of men called irpoSovXoi were ap­pointed at Athens, after the end of the Sicilian war, to act as a committee of public safet}r. Thucydides (viii. 1) calls them apX^ Ttyairpeo'SuTeptti/ cw/Spa?*', rwv irapovrav ws Uv Katpbs 77 Trpo€ov-They were ten in number. (Suidas, s. v. Ylp6€ov\oi.} Whether their appointment arose out of any concerted plan for overturning the constitu­tion, ig doubtful. The ostensible object at least was different ; and the measures which they took for defending .their country, and prosecuting the war. appear to have been prudent and vigorous. Their authority did not last much longer than a year ; for a year and a half afterwards Pisander and his colleagues established the council of Four Hundred., by- which the democracy was overthrown. (Thucyd. Y.iii. 67 ; Wachsmuth, vol. i. pt. 2. p. 197.) The first step which had been taken by Pisander and his party, was to procure the election of a body of men, called £v-yypa<f)e'is avroKpdropes, who were to draw up a plan, to be submitted to the people, for remodel] ing the constitution. Thucydides says they were ten in number. Harpocration (s. v. iZvyypatye'ts') cites Androtion and Philochorus as having stated that thirty were chosen, and adds, 'O 5e &ovKV()idr)S rwv (Je/ca e^aj'^aoVeuo'e povov twv irpo§ov\wv. This and the language of Suidas (s.v. Tlp6§ov\oi) have led Schomann to conjecture that the irp6Sov\oi were elected as crvyypa.Qe'is, and twenty more persons associated with them, making in all the thirty mentioned by Androtion and Philochorus. (Ant. jur. publ. 181.) Others have thought that the <rv~yypa(f)e'ts of Thucydides have been con­founded by grammarians with the thirty tyrants, who were first chosen o'l rovs Trarpiovs vo^ovs crvyypd.tyw(ri K<x0' ovs Tro\iT€V(Tov(n. (Xen. Hell. ii. 3. § 2 ; Goeller, ad Thuc. viii. 67.) These Athenian TrpoSovXoi are alluded to by Aristophanes in the Lysistratd (46.7), which was acted the year


after the Sicilian defeat, and by Lysias, c. Eralosili.. 1-26, eel. Steph. [C. R. K.]

PROCHEIROTONIA [Boole, p. 211, a.]

PROCLESIS (irp6K\r)ffis}t [diaetetae, p. 398, b.}

PROCONSUL is an officer who acts in the place of a consul without holding the office of con­sul itself ; though the proconsul was generally one who had held the office of consul, so that the pro-consulship was a continuation, though a modified one, of the consulship. The first time that we meet with a consul, whose imperium was prolonged after the year of his consulship, is at the com­mencement of the second Samnite war, at the end of the consular year 327 b. c., when it \vas thought advisable to prolong the imperium (imperium pro -rogare) of Q. Publilius Philo, whose return to Rome would have been followed by the loss of most of the advantages that had been gained in his cam­paign. (Liv. viii. 23, 26.) The power of proconsul was conferred by a senatusconsultum and plebis-citum, and was nearly equal to that of a regular consul, for he had the imperium and jurisdictio, but it differed inasmuch as it did not extend over the city and its immediate vicinity (see Niebuhr, Hist. of'Rome, iii. p. 186, who infers it from Gains, iv. 104, 105), and was conferred without the auspicia by a mere decree of the senate and people, and not in the comitia for elections. (Liv. ix. 42, x. 22, xxxii. 28, xxiv. 13.) Hence whenever a procon­sul led his army back to Rome for the purpose of holding- a triumph, the imperium (in urbe) was especially granted to him by the people, which was, of course, not necessary when a consul tri­umphed during the year of his office. Livy (iii. 4), it is true, mentions men appointed with pro­consular power at a much earlier period than the time of Publilius Philo ; but there is this difference, that in this earlier instance the proconsular power is not an imperium prorogatum^ but a fresh ap­pointment as commander of the reserve, and Niebuhr (flist. of Rome, ii. p. 123) justly remarks that Livy here probably applies the phraseology of a much later time to the commander of the reserve ; and this is the more probable as Dionysius.(ix. 12) speaks of this avTiarrpa.rrjj6s as having been ap­pointed by the consuls. Nineteen years after the proconsulship of Publilius Philo, 308 b. c,, Livy (ix. 42) relates that the senate alone, and without a plebiscitum, prolonged the imperium of the.consul Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus ; but it is manifest that here again Li\r}T transfers a later institution to a time when it did not yet exist ; for it was only by the lex Maenia (236 b. c.) that the Senate ob­tained the right to prolong the imperium.

When the number of Roman provinces had be­come great, it was customary for the consuls, who during the latter period of the republic spent the year of their consulship at Rome, to undertake at its close the conduct of a war in a province, or its peaceful administration. (Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 3 ; Liv. xxxiii. *2o ; Cic. ad Fain. viii. 5. 13.) There are some extraordinary cases on record in which a man obtained a province xvith the title of proconsul without having held the consulship before. The first case of this kind occurred in b. c. 211, when young P. Cornelius Scipio was created proconsul of Spain in the comitia centuriata. (Liv. xxvi. 18.) During the last period of the republic such cases occurred more frequently. (Pint. Aemil. Paul. 4 j

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