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bers and abolished their privileges (Aurel.'Vict. de Caes. 39) ; they were still allowed to remain at Rome, but had no longer the guard of the emperor's person, as he never resided in the capital. Their numbers were again increased by Maxentius, but after his defeat by Constantin?, A. d. 312, they were entirely suppressed by the latter, their fortified camp destroyed, and those who had not perished in the battle between Constantine and Maxentius were dispersed among the legions. (Zosimus, ii. 17; Aurel. Vict. de Caes. 40.) The new form of government established by Constantine did not require such a body of troops, and accordingly they were never revived. The emperor's body guards now only consisted of the Domestici, horse and foot under two comites, and of the Protectores. (Cod. ]2. tit. 17; Cod. Theod. 6. tit. 24.)
The commanders of the Praetorians were called praefecti praetorio, whose duties, powers, &c. are mentioned in a separate article.
PRAETORIUM was the name of the general's tent in the camp, and was so called because the name of the chief Roman magistrate was originally praetor, and not consul. [C'ASTKA, p. 249.] The officers who attended on the general in the Prae-toriuni) and formed his council of war, were called by the same name. (Liv. xx-x. 5*) The word was also used in several other significations, which were derived from the original one. Thus the residence of a governor of a province was called the Praetorium (Cic. c. Verr. iv. 28, v. 35 ; St. John, xviii. 28, 33) ; and the same name was also given to any large house or palace. (Suet. Aug. 72, Cat. 37 ; Juv. i. 75 ; praetoria voluptaii ttmtum deservientia^ Dig. 50. tit. 16. s. 198.) The camp of the Praetorian troops at Rome, and frequently the Praetorian troops themselves, were called by this name. [praetoriani.]
PRANDIUM. [coexa, p. 306, b.]
PRELUM, or PRAELUM, is a part of a press used by the ancients in making wine, olive- oil, and paper. The press itself was called tor- cular; and the prelum was that part which was either screwed or knocked down upon the things to be pressed, in order to squeeze out the last juices. (Serv. ad Virg. Georg. ii. 242; Vitruv. vi. 9.) Sometimes, however, prelum and torcular are used as convertible terms, a part being named instead of the whole. As regards the pressing of the grapes, it should be remembered that they were first trodden with the feet; but as this process did not press out all the juice of the grapes, they were afterwards, with their stalks and peels (scopi et folliculi}) put under the prelum. (Varro, de Re Rust. i. 54 ; comp. Colum. xii. 38.) Cato (de Re Rust. 31) advised his countrymen always to make the prelum of the wood of black maple (carpinus afro). After all the juice was pressed out of the grapes, they were collected in casks, water was poured upon them, and after standing a night they were pressed again. The liquor thus obtained was called lora ; it was preserved in casks, and was used as a drink for workmen during the winter. (Varro, I. c.) Respecting the use of the prelum in making olive-oil, and in the manufacture of paper, see Plin. //. N. xv. 1, xiii. 25 ; Colum. 50. [L. S.]
PRIMICERIUS, a name given to various
officers and dignitaries under the later Roman empire, is explained by Suidas (s. v.) to be the person who holds tbe first rank in any thing. The etymology of the word is doubtful: it is supposed that a person was called Primieerius because his name stood first in the wax (cera), that is, the tablet made of wax, which contained a list of persons of any rank.
The word Primieerius does not seem to have been always applied to the person who was at the head of any department of the state or army, but also to the one second in command or authority ; as, for instance, the Primieerius Sacri Cubiculi^ who was tinder the Praeposltus Sacri Cubiculi. [praepositus.] Various Primicerii are mentioned, as the Primieerius Domesticorum and Pro-tectorum (Cod. 12. tit. 17. s. 2), Fabricae (Cod. 11. tit. 9. s. 2), Mensarum (Cod. 12. tit. 28. s. 1), Notariorum (Cod. 12. tit. 7), &c.
PRIMIPILARES. [exercitus, p. 508, b.]
PRIMIPILUS. [exercitus, p. 505.]
PRINCEPS JUVENTUTIS. [equites.]
PRINCEPS SENATUS. [sbnatus.]
PRINCIPALIS PORTA. [castra, p. 249.]
PRINCIPES. [exercitus, pp. 495—497.]
PRINCIPIA. [exercitus, p. 502, b.]
PRIVILEGIUM. [lex, p. 683, b.]
PROAGOGEIAS GRAPHE (irpoaywydas 7pa(/Wj), a prosecution against those persons who performed the degrading office of pimps or pro curers (irpoaywyoi). By the law of Solon the heaviest punishment (to, /Aeyurra eiriTiyAa) was indicted on such a person (ecu/ ns etevQepov iraiSa. rj yvvauita Trpoay&yevcrr), Aesch. c. Ti march 3. 26. ed. Steph.). According to Plutarch (Sol. 23), a penalty of twenty drachms was imposed for the same often ce. To reconcile this statement with that of Aeschines, we may suppose with Platner (Proc. und Klay. vol. ii. p. 216) that the law mentioned by Plutarch applied only to prostitutes. An example of a man put to death for taking an Olynthian girl to a brothel (<TT7]cra? eV1 oi/cTj^aros) occurs in Dinarchus (c. Demosth. 93, ed. Steph.). A prosecution of a man by Hyperides e-nl irpoa- ywyia, is mentioned by Pollux (iii. 27). A charge (probably false) was brought against Aspasia for getting freeborn women into her house for the use of Pericles. (Plut. Per id. 32 ; Aristoph. Acliarn. 527.) In connection with this subject see the hetaiheseos graphe and phtiioras ton eleutheron graphe. (Meier, Att. Proc. p. 332.) [C. R, K.]-
PROBOLE (vrpogoATj), an accusation of a criminal nature, preferred before the people of Athens in assembl}', with a view to obtain their sanction for bringing the charge before a judicial tribunal. It may be compared in this one respect (viz.j that it was a preliminary step to a more formal trial) with our application for a criminal information ; though in regard to the object and mode of proceeding there is not much resemblance. The TrpoSoXTi was reserved for those cases where the public had sustained an injury, or where, from the station, power, or influence of the delinquent, the prosecutor might deem it hazardous to proceed in the ordinary way without being authorised by a vote of the sovereign assembly. In this point it differed from the el(rayye\ia, that in the latter the people were called upon either to pronounce final judgment or to direct some peculiar method of trial ; whereas in the Trpo§o\^t after the judg-