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V. pons janiculensis, which led direct to the Janiculum. The name of its founder and the period of its construction are unknown ; "but it occupied the site of the present " ponte Sisto," which was built by Sixtus IV. upon the ruins of the old bridge.
VI. pons vaticanus, so called because it formed the communication between the Campus Martius and Campus Vaticanus. When the waters of the Tiber are very low, vestiges of the piers are still discernible at the back of the Hospital of San Spirito. By modern topographists this bridge is often called " Pons Triumphalis," but without any
classical authority ; the inference, however, is not improbable, because it led directly from the Campus to the Clivus Cinnae (now Monte Mario), from which the triumphal processions descended.
VII. pons aelius, built by Hadrian, which led from the city to the Mausoleum [mausoleum] of that emperor, now the bridge and castle of St. Angelo. (Spart. Hadr. c. 19; Dion Cass. Ixix. p. 797, E.) A representation of this bridge is given in the following woodcut, taken from a medal still extant. It affords a specimen of the style employed at the period when the fine arts are considered to have been at their greatest perfection at Rome.
VIII. pons milvius, on the Via Fiaminia, now ponte Molle, was built by Aemilius Scaurus the censor (Aur. Vict. De Viris Illustr. c. 27. § 8), and is mentioned by Cicero about forty-five years after its formation. Upon this bridge the ambassadors of the Allobroges were arrested by Cicero's retainers during the conspiracy of Catiline. (Cic. in Cat. iii. 2.) Catulus and Pompey encamped here against Lepidus when he attempted to annul the acts of Sulla. (Floras, iii. 23.) Its vicinity was a favourite place of resort for pleasure and debauchery in the licentious reign of Nero. (Tacit. Ann. xiii. 47.) And finally, it was at this spot that the battle between Maxentius and Constantine, which decided the fate of the "Roman empire, took place. (a. d. 312.)
The Roman bridges without the city were far too many to be enumerated here. They formed one of the chief embellishments in all the public roads ; and their numerous and stupendous remains, still existing in Italy, Portugal, and Spain, attest, even to the present day, the scale of grandeur with which their works of national utility were always carried on. Subjoined is a representation of the bridge at Ariminum (Rimini), which remains entire: it was commenced by Augustus and terminated by Tiberius, as we learn from the inscription, which is still extant. It is introduced in order to give the reader an idea of the style of art during the age of Vitruvius, that peculiar period of transition between the austere simplicity of the republic and the profuse magnificence of the empire.
The bridge thrown across the bay of Baiac by Caligula (Dion Cass. lix. p. 652, e ; Suet. Cal, 19),
the useless undertaking- of a profligate prince, does not require any further notice ; but the bridge