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PONDERA.

should "be compelled to prefer the theoretical cal­culation from the quadrantal already given, and to say that the value of 5053'28 (or 5053'635) grains, obtained from the coins is too high, rather than too low.

(3) Another method is from existing Roman weights, of which we possess many, but differing so greatly among themselves, that they can give no safe independent result, and their examination is little more than a matter of curiosity. A full account of them will be found in Bockh, pp. 168— 196.

(4) The determination of the Roman pound from its ratio to the Attic talent, namely, as I : 80 (see Bockh, c. 9) is not to be much relied on ; since we do not know whether that ratio was exact, or only approximate.

On the whole, the result obtained from the coins is probably nearest to the truth.

12. Connection between Weights and Measures.

— Upon the interesting, but very difficult, subjects of the connection of the Greek and Roman weights with one another, and of both with the Greek measures, our space does not permit us to add any­thing to the passages quoted from Bockh and Grote under mensura, p. 754 ; and to what is said under quadrantal.

13. Authorities.— The following are the chief authorities on the subject of ancient weights, mone}r, and measures.

i. Ancient Authorities. — In addition to the classic writers in general, especially the historians aud geographers, (1) the Ancient Grammarians and lexicographers contain many scattered notices, some of which are preserved from the last metro-logical treatises of Dardanus, Diodorus, Polemar-ehus, and others. (2) We possess a number of small metrological treatises, which are printed in the fifth volume of Stephanus's Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, and with the works of Galen, vol. xix. eel. Kiihn. The most important of them are, that ascribed to Dioscorides, the piece entitled Trepl jAerpcav vyp&v, and the extract from the KocTyUTyri/cct of Cleopatra. Besides these, we have a good treatise on the subject, printed in the Benedictine Analecta Graeca, pp. 393, foil, and in Montfaucon's Paleographie Grecque, pp. 369, foil.:—two works, of but little value, ascribed to Epiphanius, entitled

•jrept juerpwv Kal (rrafytcov and irepl i^f]\LK.6rif]ros /uGTp&v, printed in the Varia Sacra of Steph. Le Moyne, vol. i. pp. 470, foil.: — various writings of Heron (see Diet, of Biog. s. v.} : — and a treatise by Didymus of Alexandria, ^erpa /j-apudpcav koi Tro.vToiwv tyXwv, published by Angelo Mai from a MS. in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, 1817,

*3vo. Certain difficulties respecting the authorship of some of these works are discussed by Bockh, c. 2. In Latin, we have two works by Priscian ; the one in prose, entitled, De Figuris et Nominibus Nutnerorum et de Nummis ac Ponderibus ad Symmachum Liber; the other is the poem De Ponderibus et Mensuris, in 208 hexameter verses, which is commonly ascribed to Rhemnius Fannius, and which is printed in Wernsdorf's Poetae Latini Minores, vol. v. pt. 1. pp. 212, foil., and in Weber's Corpus Poetarum Latinorum^ pp. 1369, 1370. The statements of all these metrological writers must bs used with great caution on account of their late age. (3) The chief Existing Monuments such as buildings, measures, vessels, weights, and coins, have been mentioned in the articles mensura,

PONS.

and nummus. Further information respecting them will be found in Bockh

ii. Modern Works: see the list given at the end of the article nummus. The present position of our knowledge is marked by the work of Bockh, so often referred to, with Mr. Grote's review of it. There is no satisfactory English work on the sub­ject. The best, so far as it goes, is the treatise of Raper, in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. Ixi. Mr. Hussey's work is very useful, but its value is much impaired by the want of more of that criticism, at once ingenious and sound, which has guided Bockh to so many new and firm results amidst intricacies which were before deemed hope­less.

For a general view of the value of the several weights, measures, and money in terms of our own, see the Tables at the end of this work. [P. S.~f

PONDO. f [libra..]

PONS (yetyvpa), a bridge. The most ancient bridge upon record, of which the construction has been described, is the one erected by Nitocris over

____ t V

the Euphrates at Babylon. (Herod, i. 186.) It was in the nature of a drawbridge ; and con­sisted merely of stone piers without arches, but connected with one another by a framework of planking, which was removed at night to prevent the inhabitants from passing over from the different sides of the river to commit mutual depredations. The stones were fastened together by iron cramps soldered with lead ; and the piers were built whilst the bed of the river was free from water, its course having been diverted into a large lake, which was again restored to the usual channel when the work had been completed. (Herod. L c.) Compare the description given by Diodorus Siculus (ii. 8, vol. i. p. 121, ed. Wesseling), who ascribes the work to Semiramis.

Temporary bridges constructed upon boats, called <rxe8icu (Hesych. s. v. ; Herod, vii, 36 ; Aesch. Pers. 69, ed. Blomf., et Gloss.), were also of very early invention. Dareius is mentioned as having thrown a bridge of this kind over the Thracian Bosporus (Herod, iv. 83, 85) ; but we have no details respecting it, beyond the name of its architect, Mandrocles of Samos. (Herod, iv. 87, 88.) The one constructed by order of Xerxes across the Hellespont is more celebrated, and has been minutely described by Herodotus (vii. 36), It was built at the place where the Chersonese forms almost a right angle, between the towns of Sestos and Madytus on the one side, and Abydos on the other. The first bridge, which was con­structed at this spot, was washed away by a storm almost immediately after it was completed (Herod, vii. 34), and of this no details are given. The subsequent one was executed under the directions of a different set of architects. (Id. 36.) Both of them appear to have partaken of the nature of suspension bridges, the platform which formed the passage-way being secured upon enormous cables formed by ropes of flax (XevKoXivov} and papyrus ((3v§\ivcci>') twisted together, and then stretched tight by means of windlasses (ovoi) on each side.

The bridges hitherto mentioned cannot be strictly denominated Greek, although the archi­tects by whom the two last were constructed were natives of the Greek islands. But the frequent mention of the word in Homer proves that bridges were not uncommon in the Greek states, or at least in the western part of Asia .Minor, during his time.

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