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On this page: Podium – Poena – Polemarchus – Poletae – Politeia – Politophylaces – Pollicaris – Pollicitatio – Pollinctores – Polus

POLEMARCHUS.

PODIUM, in architecture, is a continued pe­destal, for supporting a row of columns, or serving for a parapet, or forming a sort of terrace, as the podium in the theatre and amphitheatre. (Vitruv. iii. 3, v. 7, vii. 4 ; amphitheatrum.) [P. S.]

POENA (Greek, ttojz/tj). The Roman sense of this word is explained by Ulpian (Dig. 50. tit. 16. s. ] 3) at the same time that he explains Fraus and Malta. Fraus is generally an offence, Noxa ; and Poena is the punishment of an offence, Noxae vindicta. Poena is a general name for any punish­ ment of any offence : Multa is the penalty of a particular offence, which is now (in Ulpian's time) pecuniary. Ulpian says in his time because by the Law of the Twelve Tables, the Multa was pecuaria or a certain number of oxen and sheep. (Plin. xviii. 3; Festus, s. vv. Multam^ Peculatus.} [lex aternia tarpeia.] Ulpian proceeds to say that Poena may affect a person's caput and existimatio, that is, Poena may be loss of citizen­ ship and Infamia, A Multa was imposed accord­ ing to circumstances, and its amount was deter­ mined by the pleasure of him who imposed it. A Poena was only inflicted when it was imposed by some lex or some other legal authority (quo alio jure). When no poena was imposed, then a multa or penalty might be inflicted. Every person who had jurisdictio (this seems to be the right reading instead of judicatio) could impose a multa ; and these were magistratus and praesides provinciaram. A Poena might be inflicted by any one who was intrusted with the judicial prosecution of the offence to which it was affixed. The legal distinction be­ tween Poena and Multa is not always observed by the Roman writers. [G. L.]

POLEMARCHUS (iro&epapxos). An account of the functions of the Athenian magistrate of this name is given under archon. Athens, however, was not the only state of Greece which had officers so called. We read of them at Sparta, and in various cities of Boeotia. As their name denotes, they were originally and properly connected with military affairs, being entrusted either with the command of armies abroad, or the superintendence of the war department at home: sometimes with both. The polemarchs of Sparta appear to have ranked next to the king, when on actual service abroad, and were generally of the royal kindred or house (yei/os). (Herod, vii. 173.) They com­manded single morae (Xen. Rep. log. xi. 4), so that they would appear to have been six in number (Mu'ller, Dor, iii. 12. § 4), and sometimes whole armies. (Herod. I. c.) They also formed part of the king's council in war, and of the royal escort called Sa/xoo-ia (Xen. Hell. vi. 4. § 14), and were supported or represented by the officers called G-vjjityop&is. (Mtiller, iii. 12. §5.) The polemarchs of Sparta had also the superintendence of the public tables : a circumstance which admits of explana­tion from the fact that Lvcurgus is said to have

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instituted the syssitia for the purposes of war, and therefore as military divisions ; so that the Lace­daemonians would eat and fight in the same com­pany. (Miiller, iii. 12. § 4.) But in addition to their military functions, and the duties connected therewith, the polemarchs of Sparta had a civil as well as a certain extent of judicial power (Id. iii. 7. § 8), in which respect they resembled the &pxco?/ Tro\e}j.apxos at Athens. In Boeotia also there were magistrates of this name. At Thebes, for instance, there appears to have been two, perhaps

POLUS.

elected annually, and from what happened when Phoebidas, the Lacedaemonian commander, seized the Cadmeia or citadel of Thebes (b. c. 382), we may infer that in times of peace they were in­vested with the chief executive power of the state, and the command of the city, having its military force under their orders. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. § 30.') They are not, however, to be confounded with the Boeotarchs. At Thespiae also (Plut. Dtmetr. c. 39) there were officers of this name, and likewise in Aetolia (Polyb. iv. 79) and Arcadia. At Cynaetha in the latter country the gates of the city were entrusted to the special care of the Polemarchs: they had to keep guard by them in the day-time, and to close them at night, and the keys were al­ways kept in their custody. (Id. iv. 18.) [R. W.]

POLETAE (7rcoA?7Tcu), a board of ten officers, or magistrates (for they are called apx?) by Har- pocration), whose duty it was to grant leases of the public lands and mines, and also to let the revenues arising from the customs, taxes, confiscations, and forfeitures^ Of such letting the word TrwAeFv (not lAiffQovv} was generally used, and also the correla­ tive words wvetcrQai and TrpiacrOcu. Their official place of business was called ^ojX^r^piov. One was chosen from each tribe. A chairman presided at their meetings (e-n-pvrdveve}. In the letting of the revenue they were assisted by the managers of the theoric fund (to i&ecopi/coV), and they acted under the authority of the Senate of Five Hundred, who exercised a general control over the financial de­ partment of the administration. Resident aliens, who did not pay their residence-tax (ij.^tolkiov\ were summoned before them, and if found to have committed default, were sold in a room called ir(t3\7]rfipiov tqv [AsroiKiov. (Demostli. c. Aristoq. 787.) Other persons who had forfeited their free­ dom to the state were also sold by the ttwat/tcu, as foreigners who had been convicted' of 'usurping the rights of citizenship. (Harpoc. and Suid. 5. vv. Tl(a\r}ral and ^to'ikiov Pollux, viii. 99 ; Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, p. 155, 2d ed.; Meier, da bon. damn. p. 41.) [C. R. K.j

POLITEIA, POLFTES (iroKireia, [CiviTAS (greek).]

POLITOPHYLACES [tagus-.]

POLLICARIS. [per.]

POLLICITATIO. [obligationes, p. 821.]

POLLINCTORES. [FuNus, p. 558, a.]

POLUS (tt^aos), in astronomy, is a very diffi­cult word to explain in a perfectly satisfactory manner, on account of the various senses in which it is used. In such a case, the only safe guide to the original meaning of a word is to determine, if possible,- its sense in the earliest passage in which it occurs, and to compare that sense with what is known of the etymology of the word. Now it is evident that ir6\os contains the root IIEA, which we find in Tre'Ao/xcu and other words, and the fundamental idea attached to which appears to be that of motion. Then, turning to the Greek au­thors, we find the word first occurring in the well-known passage in which Aeschylus (Prom. 427) speaks of Atlas as supporting on his shoulders the pole of heaven, that is, the vault of the sky, which was called TroAos in accordance with the notion, which prevailed from the time of Thales, that tha sky was a hollow sphere, which moved continually round the earth, carrying the heavenly bodies with it, (Comp. Eurip. Or. 1685 ; Pseudo-Plat, A snook*

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