Scanned text contains errors.
ference consisted In like manner it is by no means clear in what .respects the causia differed from the petasus, although they are distinctly opposed to one another by a writer in Athenaeus (xii. p. 537, e). Moreover in the later Greek authors we find tt?aos used to denote a hat of other materials besides felt. (Athen. vi. p. 274.)
On the use of felt in covering the feet see udo.
Felt was likewise used for the lining of helmets. [GALEA.J For further illustrations of this subject, see Yates's Tcxtrinum Antiquorum, P.I. Appen dix B. [J. Y.j
PINACOTHECA (irlva^ j^/nj), a picture- gallery. Marcellus, after the capture of Syracuse, first displayed the works of Greek painters and sculptors to his countrymen, whose taste for the fine arts was gradually matured by the conquests of L. Scipio, FJamininus, and L. Paullus, and grew into a passion after the spoils of Achaia had been trans ported by Mummies to Rome. Objects of this description were at first employed exclusively for the decoration of temples and places of public resort, but private collections were soon formed ; and to wards the close of the republic we find that in the houses of the more opulent a room was devoted to the reception of paintings and statues. (Varro, 7?. R. i. 2. 59 ; Cic. in Verr. i. 21.) In the time of Augustus, Vitruvius includes the pinaco- theca among the ordinary apartments of a complete mansion, and gives directions that it should be of ample size and facing the north, in order that the light might be equable and not too strong. (Vitrav. i. 2, vi. 5. 7 ; compare Plin. H. N. xxxv. 2. 7. 11 ; Mazois, Le Palais de Scaurus, cap. ix. ; Becker, Gallus, vol. i. p. 92.) [W. R.]
PISCATORII LUDI. [Luoi piscatoril]
PISCINA, properly a fish-pond, either of salt water or of fresh (see the passages in Forcellini and Freund) denotes also any kind of reservoir, especially those connected with the aqueducts and the baths. (aquaeductus,p. 114, a ; balneae, pp.189, b., 19. a.) [P. S.J
PISTOR (apTOTTOi6s~), a baker, from pinsere to pound, since corn was pounded in mortars before the invention of mills. [MoLA.] At Rome bread was originally made at home by the women of the house ; and there were no persons at Rome who made baking a trade, or any slaves specially kept for this purpose in private houses, till b. c. 173. (Plin. //. N. xviii. 11. s. 28.) In Varro's time, however, good bakers were highly prized, and great sums were paid for slaves who excelled in this art. (Gell. xv. 19.) The name was not confined to those who made bread only, but was also given to pastry-cooks and confectioners, in which case however they were usually called pistores duldarii or candidarii. (Mart. xiv. 222 ; OrellV/Mser. n. 4263.) The bakers at Rome, like most other tradespeople, formed a collegium. (Dig. 3. tit. 4. s. 1 ; 27. tit. 1. s. 46.)
Bread was often baked in moulds called artoptae, and the loaves thus baked were termed artopticii. (Plin. II. N. xviii. 11. s. 27, 28 ; Plant. Auhd. ii. 9. 4.) In one of the bakehouses discovered at Pompeii, several loaves have been found apparently baked in moulds, which may therefore be regarded as artopticii; they are represented below. They are flat and about eight inches in diameter.
Bread was not generally made at home at Athens, but was sold in the market-place chiefly by women, called aproTrc&Xides. (Compare Aristoph. Vcsp. 13.89, &e.) These women seem to have been what the fish-women of London are at present ; they excelled in abuse, whence Aristophanes (Ran. 856) says, \oi$Gpei(r6dt (bffirsp dpro7rc6At5as., (Becker, CJiarikles, vol. i. p. 284.)
PLAGIUM. This offence was the subject of a Fabia Lex, which is mentioned by Cicero (Pro •Rabirio, c. 3), and is assigned to the consulship of Quintus Fabius and M. Claudius Marcellus, n. c. 183; but without sufficient reason. The chief provisions of the Lex are collected from the Digest (48. tit. 15. s. 6) : " if a freeman concealed, kept confined, or knowingly with dolus malus purchased an ingenuus or libertinus against his will, or par ticipated in any such acts ; or if he persuaded another person's male or female slave to run away from a master or mistress, or without the consent or knowledge of the master or mistress concealed, kept confined, or purchased knowingly with dolus mains such male or female slave, or participated in any such acts, he was liable to the penalties of the Lex Fabia." The penalty of the Lex was pecu niary, and the consequence was Infamia ; but this fell into disuse, and persons who offended against the lex were punished, either by being sent to work in the mines or by crucifixion, if they were humiliores, or with confiscation of half of their property or perpetual relegation, if they were honestiores. The crime of kidnapping men became a common practice and required vigilant pursuit (Suetonius, Octavian. c. 32). A Senatusconsultum ad Legem Fabiam did not allow a master to give or sell a runaway slave, which was technically called " fugam vendere •" but the provision did not apply to a slave who was merely absent, nor to the case of a runaway slave when the master had commissioned any one to go after him and sell him: it was the object of the provision to en courage the recovery of runaway slaves. The name of the Senatusconsultum, by which the Lex Fabia was amended, does not appear. The word Plagium is said to come from the Greek irXdyios., oblique, indirect, dolosus. But this is doubtful. Schrader (Inst. 4. tit. 18. § 10) thinks that the derivation from plaga (a net) is more probable. He who committed plagium was plagiarius, a word which Martial (Ep. i. 53) applies to a person who falsely gave himself out as the author of a book ; and in this sense the word has come into common use in our language. (Dig. 48. tit. 15 ; Cod. 9. tit. 20 ; Paulus, S. R. i. tit. 6 A. ; Rein, Das CriminalrecM dcr ttomer, p. 38G.) [G. L.J