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{Pollux, ix. 105.) We learn from Plato (T/teaet. p. 146) that in one game of ball, played at by boys, though we do not know what kind it was, the boy who was conquered was called ass (oros) ; and the one who conquered was named king

Among the Romans the game at ball was also played at in various ways. Pila was used in a gene­ral sense for any kind of ball : but the ball& among the Romans seem to have been of three kinds ; the pila in its narrower sense, a small ball ; the follis, a great ball filled with air [follis] ; and the paganica, of which we know scarcely anything, as it is only mentioned in two passages by Martial (vii. 32. 7, xiv. 43), but from the latter of whieh we may conclude that it was smaller than the follis and larger than the pila. Most of the games at ball among the Romans seem to have been played at with the pila or small ball. One of the simplest modes of playing the ball, where two per­sons standing opposite to one another threw the ball from one to the other, was called datatim ludere. (Plant. Cure. ii. 3. 17.) But the- most favourite game at ball seems to have been the trigon or pila trigonalis, which was played at by three persons, who stood in the form of a triangle, ez/ rptytivy. We have no particulars respecting it, but we are told that skilful players prided themselves upon catching and throwing the ball with their left hand. (Mart. xiv. 46, vii. 72. 9).

The ancient physicians prescribed the game at ball, as well as other kinds of exercise, to their patients ; Antyllus (ap. Oribas. vi. 32) gives some interesting information on this subject.

The persons playing with the pila or small ball in the annexed woodcut are taken from a painting in the baths of Titus (Descr. des Bains de Titus^ pi. 17) ; but it is difficult to say what particular kind of game they are playing at. Three of the players have two balls each.

(Burette, De la Sphiristique, p. 214, &c., in Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr. vol. i. ; Krause, Gym-nastik u. Ayvn. d. Hell. p. 299, &c. ; Becker, Gallus, vol. i. p. 268, &c.)


PILANI. [exercitus, p. 501, b.] PILENTUM, a splendid four-wheeled carriage, furnished with soft cushions, which conveyed the Roman matrons in sacred processions, and in going to the Circensian and other games. (Virg. Aen. viii. 666 ; Hor. Epist. ii. 1. 192 ; Claudian, De Nupt. Honor. 285 ; Isid. Orig. xx. 12.) This distinction .was granted to them by the Senate on account of their generosity in giving their gold and jewels on a particular occasion for the service of the state



(Liv. v. 25.) The Vestal virgins were conveyed in the same manner. (Prudentius contra Sym. ii. sub fin.) The pilentum was probably very like the harmamaxa and carpentum, but open at the sides, so that those who sat in it might both see and be seen. [J. Y.]

Pl'LEUS or PI'LEUM (Non. Marc. iii. -pilea virorum sunf, Serv. in Virg. Aen. ix. 616). dim. PILE'OLUS or PILE'OLUM (Colum. de Arbor. 25) ; (-TaAos, dim. TriAio*/, second dim. TriXifiiov; TriArjjua, 7nA«Toj>), any piece of felt; more espe­cially, a skull-cap of felt, a hat.

There seems no reason to doubt that felting (fj that?™?/, Plat. Polit. ii. 2. p. 296, ed. Bekker) is a more ancient invention than weaving [tela], nor that both of these arts came into Europe from Asia. From the Greeks, who were acquainted with this article as early as the age of Homer (II. x. 265) and Hesiod (Op. et Dies, 542, 546), the use of felt passed together with its name to the Ro­mans. Among them the employment of it was always far less extended than among the Greeks. Nevertheless Pliny in one sentence, " Lanae et per se coactae vestem faehmt," gives a very exact account of the process of felting. (H.N. viii. 48. s. 73.) A Latin sepulchral inscription (Gruter, p. 648. n. 4) mentions "a manufacturer of woollen felt " (lanarius coactilarius\ at the same time in­dicating that he was not a native of Italy (Lari* seus)*

The. principal use of felt among the Greeks and Romans was to make coverings of the head for the male sex, and the most common kind was a simple skull-cap. It was often more elevated, though still round at the top., In this shape it appears on coins, especially on those of Sparta, or such as ex­hibit the symbols of the Dioscuri; and it is thus represented, with that addition on its summit, which distinguished the Roman flamines and salii, in three figures of the woodcut to the article apex. But the apex, according to Dionysius of Halicar-nassus, was sometimes conical ; and conical or pointed caps were certainly very common.

In the Greek and Roman mythology different kinds of caps were symbolically assigned to indi­cate the occupations of the wearers. The painter Nicomachus first represented Ulysses in a cap, no doubt to indicate his sea-faring life. (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. § 22.) The woodcut on tlie following page shows him clothed in the exomis, and in the act of offering wine to the Cyclops. (Winckelmann,.Mb?2. Ined.u. 154 ; Homer, Od. ix. 345—347.) He here wears the round cap ; but more commonly both he and the boatman Charon (see woodcut, p* 512) have it pointed. Vulcan (see woodcut, p. 726) and Daedalus wear the caps of common artificers.

A cap of very frequent occurrence in the works of ancient art is that now generally known by the name of " the Phrygian bonnet." The Mysian pileus, mentioned by Aristophanes (Acharn. 429), must have been one of this kind. For we find it continually introduced as the characteristic symbol of Asiatic life in paintings and sculptures of Priam (see woodcut, p. 882) and Mithras (woodcut on title-page), and in short in all the representations, not only of Trojans and Phrygians, but of Amazons (woodcut, p. 894), and of all the inhabitants of Asia Minor, and even of nations dwelling still further east. The representations of this Phrygian, or Mysian, cap in sculptured marble show that it was made of a strong and stiff material and of .a

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