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<f>Qopd may signify any sort of corruption, bodily or mental ; but the expression <£0. r. e. comprehends, if it is not limited to, a crime too common among the Greeks, as appears from a law cited by Aes- chines (c. Timarch:*2, ed. Steph.). On this subject see proagogeias graphe, and Schbmann, Ant. Jur. Pub. Gr. pp. 335, 338. [C. R. K.]
PHYLARCHI ((j)v\apxoi), generally the prefects of the tribes in any state, as at Epidamnus, where the government was formerly vested in the (})v\apxoi, but afterwards in a senate. (Arist. Polit. v. 1.) At Athens the officers so called were (after the age of Cleisthenes) ten in number, one for each of the tribes, and were specially charged with the command and superintendence of the cavalry. (Harpocr. s. v.\ Pollux, viii. 94.) There can be but little doubt, that each of the Phylarchs commanded the cavalry of his own tribe, and they were themselves collectively and individually under the control of the two Hipparchs, just as the Taxiarchs were subject to the two Stratcgi. According to Pollux (viii. 94), they were elected one from each tribe by the Archons collectively; but his authority can hardly be considered as conclusive on this point. Herodotus (v. 19) informs us that when Cleisthenes increased the number of the tribes frpm four to ten, he also made ten Plrylarchs instead of four. It has been thought, however (Titmannj^tac^sy. pp. 274, 275), that the historian should have said ten Ph}'larchs in the place of the old (^uAooacnAeTs, who were four in number, one for each of the old tribes. (See Wachsrnuth, Hellen. Alterthumsk. vol. i. pp. 425, 543, vol ii. p. 326, 2d ed.) [R. W.]
PHYLOBASILEIS (<j>v\oec«n\e?y). The origin and duties of the Athenian magistrates, so called, are involved in much obscurity, and the little knowledge we possess on the subject is derived almost entirely from the grammarians. In the earliest times they were four in number, representing each one of the four tribes, and probably elected (but not for life) from and by them. (Hesych. s. v.) They were nominated from the Eupatridae, and during the continuance of royalty at Athens, these " kings of the tribes " were the constant assessors of the sovereign, and rather as his colleagues than counsellors. (Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, vol. ii. p. 11.) From an expression in one of the laws of Solon (Pint. Solon, 1 9), it appears that before his time the kings of the tribes exercised a criminal jurisdiction in cases of murder or high treason ; in which respect, and as connected with the four tribes of the city, they may be compared with the " duumviri perduellionis " at Home, who appeared to have represented the two ancient tribes of the Ramnes and Tities. (Nie-buhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 304.) They were also intrusted (but perhaps in later times) with the performance of certain religious rites, and as they sat in the f3a<ri\€iov (Poll. viii. Ill), they probably acted as assessors of the ^px^v /3a<n/\efo, or " Rex sacrificulus," as they had formerly done of the king. Though they were originally connected with the four ancient tribes, still they were not abolished by Cleisthenes when he increased the number of tribes and otherwise altered the constitution of Athens ; probably because their duties were mainly of a religious character. (Wachsmuth, Hellen. Alterthumsk. vol. ii. p. 426, 2d ed.) They appear to have existed even after his time, and acted as judges, but in tmimpor-
tant or merely formal matters. They presided, we are told (Poll. viii. 120), over the court of the Ephetae, held at the Prytaneium, in the mock trials over instruments of homicide (at r&v wtyvyjav 5//<:cu), and it was part of their duty to remove these instruments beyond the limits of their country (rb e/jTreo-bj/ &fyvxov inrepopicrai'). We may reasonably conclude that this jurisdiction was a relic of more important functions, such as those described by Plutarch (Solon, 19), from which, and their connection with the Prytaneium, it has been conjectured that they were identical with the old Prytanes. (Miiller, Eumen. § 67.) Plutarch (1. c.) speaks of them both as j8acrjAe?s and Trpv- Tavets. In a ^^fff-^a, quoted by Andocides (de Mi/st. p. 11), the title of /3a(nAe?s seems to be ap plied to them. [R. W.]
PHYLON (fyvKov). [tribus.]
PICTURA(7pa(/>^, ypatyiK-f], fwypa^fa), painting. I. The art of imitating the appearances of bodies upon an even surface, by means of light and shade or colour, was an art most extensively cultivated by the ancients, but especially by the Greeks, amongst whom it was certainly carried to the highest degree of technical development.
II. Authorities. The principal original sources of information upon the history of ancient art, are Pausamas, the elder Pliny, and Quintilian ; the writings also of Cicero, Lucian, Aelian, Aristotle, Athenaeus, Plutarch, the elder and younger Phi-lostratus, contain many hints and maxims invaluable to the historian of art. The best modern works on the subject are: Junius, De Pictura Veterum and Catalogus Artiftcum, Roter. 1694, folio, which contain almost all the passages in ancient authors relating to the arts ; but the Catalogue is the more valuable portion of the work ; Sillig, Catalog-its Artiftcum, Dresden 1827, 8vo., an indispensable supplement to the Catalogue of Junius ; this excellent work, written equally for the scholar and the artist, has been translated into English under the title of a Dictionary of the Artists of Antiquity, 1837 * ; a further supplement to Sillig,. of great importance, is the work of M. Raoul-Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, Supple-ment cm Catalogue dcs Artistes de VAntiquite Grecque et Romaine, Paris 1845 ; Miiller, Hand-uuch der Archaologie der Kunst, Breslau 1848, 8vo., 3rd ed. by Welcker, a most useful work, but written more for the antiquary than the artist; the 2nd edition has recently been translated by Mr. Leitch ; Biittiger, Ideen zur Archaologie der Malerei, Dresden 1811, 8vo., first part, from the earliest times until Polygnotus and his contemporaries, inclusive ; Durand, Plistoire de la Pein-ture Ancienne, London 1725, folio, a translation of book xxxv. of Pliny, with copious notes ; Carlo Dati, Vite del Pittori Antichi, Florence 1667, 4to., the lives of Zeuxis, Parrhasius, Apelles, and Protogenes ; Thiersch, Ueber die Epochen der lil-denden Kunst unter den Griechen, Munchen 1829, 8vo., 2nd ed. ; Raoul-Rochette, Recherches sur VEmploi de la Peinture, &c., Paris 1836, 4to. ; John, Malerei der Alien, Berlin 1836, 8vo. ; Le-tronne, Lcttres d\m Antiquaire a un Artiste, Paris 1840, 8vo.: Nagler, Neues allgemeines Kiinst-
* An important error, however, among many others, in this translation, demands notice ; the term enamel is throughout erroneously used in the place of encaustic.
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