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On this page: Pharmacon Graphe – Pharos – Pharos – Phaselus – Phasis

PEAROS.

liip, in the usual place of the sword [CrLAnlus], and consequently, as Pindar says, "under the elbow" (Ol. ii. 150. s. 91) or "under the arm" (vir&Xsviov, Theocrit. xvii. 30). It was worn thus by the Scythians (Schol. in Pind. I. c.) and by the Egyptians (Wilkinson, Man. and Gust. vol. i. pp. #11, 391), and is so represented in the preceding figure of the Amazon Dinomache, copied from a Greek vase. (Hope, Costume of the Ancients^ i. 22.) The left-hand figure in the same woodcut is from one of the Aegina marbles. It is the statue of an Asiatic archer, whose quiver (fractured in the original) is suspended equally low, but with the opening towards his right elbow, so that it would be necessary for him in taking the arrows to pass his hand behind his body instead of before it. To this fashion was opposed the Cretan method of carrying the quiver, which is exemplified in the woodcut, p. 276, and is uniformly seen in the ancient statues of Diana-. [J. Y.]

PHARMACON GRAPHE (QappaKw or <j>ap- fj.aKeias ypa<p7]\ an indictment against one who caused the death of another by poison, whether given with intent to kill or to obtain undue influ­ ence. (Pollux, vin. 40, 117 ; Demosth. c. Aristocr. 627 ; Arc/urn, in Or. Antiph. KarTjy. <f>ap[j,.) It was tried by the court of Areiopagus. That the malicious intent was a necessary ingredient in the crime, may be gathered from the expressions e/c irpovoias, e'£ eiri€ov\r)s kcu Trpo€ov\.ijs.l in Antiphon (I.e. iii. 112, ed. Steph.). The punishment was death, but might (no doubt) be mitigated by the court under palliating circumstances. We have examples of such-7pa^>cu in the speech of Antiphon already cited, and that entitled irepl rov xopeurot). (Meier, Att. Proc. p. 311.) Among the Greeks, women appear to have been most addicted to this crime, as we learn from various passages in ancient authors. Such women are called tyap/JLaitiSes and $>apn.a,KevTpiai. Poisonous drugs were frequently administered as love potions, or for other purposes of a similar nature. Men whose minds were af­ fected by them were said <£ap/m/caz>. Wills made by a man under the influence of drugs (urrb ^ap/m- tcMi/) were void at Athens. (Demosth. c. Steph. 1133.) [C. R.K.]

PHAROS or PHARUS (<$>fyos\ a light-house. The most celebrated light-house of antiquity was that situated at the entrance to the port of Alex­andria. It was built by Sostratus of Cnidos on an island, which bore the same name, by command of one of the Ptolemies, and at an expense of 800 talents. (Plin. //. N. xxxvi. 12 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. 3>d.pos ; A chill. Tat. v. 6.) It was square, con­structed of white stone, and with admirable art; exceedingly lofty, and in all respects of great dimensions. (Caesar, Bell. Civ. iii. 112.) It con­tained many stories (7roAuopo</>oz>, Strabo, xvii. 1. § 6), which diminished in width from below up­wards. (Herodian, iv. 3.) The upper stories had windows looking seawards, and torches or fires were kept burning in them by night in order to guide vessels into the harbour. (Val. Flacc. vii. 84 ; see Bartoli, lug. Ant. iii. 12.)

Pliny (1. c.) mentions the light-houses of Ostia and Ravenna, and says that there were similar towers at many other places. They are repre­sented on the medals of Aparnea and other mari­time cities. The name of Pharos was given to them in allusion to that at Alexandria, which was the model for their construction. (Herodian, I.e.;

895

PHASIS.

Sueton. Claud. 20 ; Brunck, Anal ii. 186.) The Pharos of Brundusium, for example, was, like that of Alexandria, an island with a light-house upon it. (Mela, ii, 7. § 13 ; Steph. Byz. I. c.} Suetonius (Tiber. 74) mentions another pharos at Capreae.

The annexed woodcut shows two phari remain­ ing in Britain. The first is within the precincts of Dover Castle. It is about 40 feet high, octago­ nal externally, tapering from below upwards, and built with narrow courses of brick and much wider courses of stone in alternate portions. The space within the tower is square, the sides of the octagon without and of the square within being equal, viz., each 15 Roman feet. The door is seen at the bottom. (Stukely, Itin. Curios, p. 129.) A similar pharos formerly existed at Boulogne, and is sup­ posed to have been built by Caligula. (Sueton. Calig. 46 ; Montfaucon, Supplem. vol. iv. L. vi. 3, 4.) The round tower here introduced is on the summit of a hill on the coast of Flintshire. (Pennant, Par. of Whiteford and ffolywell, p. 112.) [ J. Y.]

PHAROS (4>apos). [pallium.]

PHASELUS (</>a<r?]Aos), was a vessel rather long and narrow, apparently so called from its re­semblance to the shape of a phaselus or kidney-bean. It was chiefly used by the Egyptians, and was of various sizes, from a mere boat to a vessel adapted for long voyages. (Virg. Georg. iv. 289 ; Catull. 4 ; Martial, x. 30. 13 ; Cic. ad Att. i. 13.) Octavia sent ten triremes of this kind, which she had obtained from Anton}r, to assist her brother Octavianus ; and Appian {Bell. Civ. v. 95) describes them as a kind of medium between the ships of war and the common transport or merchant vessels. The phaselus was built for speed (Catull. 1. c. phaselus ille—navium celerrimus), to which more attention seems to have been paid than to its strength ; whence the epithet fragilis is given to it by Horace. (Carm. iii. 2. 27, 28.) These ves­sels were sometimes made of clay (jfictilibusphaselis, Juv. xv. 127), to which the epithet of Horace may perhaps also refer.

PHASIS (</>a<m), was one of the various me­thods by which public offenders at Athens might be prosecuted ; but the word is often used to de­note any kind of information ; as Pollux (viii. 47) says, k.oiv&s (pdcreis eicaXouvro Tracrcu at ^viktcls t&v \avQav6vT<av aSi/o^arco*'. (See Aristoph. Eq. 300, and Acharn. 823, 826, where the word <pav-rd& is used in the same sense as fycdvu.} The word crvKO(f)di'r7]s is derived from the practice of laying information against those who exported figs. [sycophantes.j

Though it is certain that the <f>dcris was distin­guished from other methods of prosecution (De­mosth. c. Aristoy. 793 ; Isocr. c. Callim. 375, ed.

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