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•wig, and that Roscius Gallus, about the year 100 B. c., was the first who introduced the use of masks. It should, however, be remembered that masks had been used long before that time in the Atellanae (Fest. s. v. Personata\ so that the innovation of Roscius must have been confined to the regular drama, that is, to tragedy and comedy. As for the forms of Roman masks, it may be presumed that, being introduced from Greece at so late a period, they had the same defects as those used in Greece at the time when the arts were in their decline, and this supposition is confirmed by all works of art, and the paintings of Herculaneum and Pompeii, in which masks are represented ; for the masks appear unnaturally distorted and the mouth always
•wide open. The expressions of Roman writers also support this supposition. (Gellius, v. 7 ; Juv. iii. 175.) We may mention here that some of the oldest MSS. of Terence contain representations of Roman masks, and from these MSS. they have been copied in several modern editions of that poet, as in the edition published at Urbino in 1726, fol., and in that of Dacier. The cut annexed contains representations of four of these masks prefixed to the Andria.
When actors at Rome displeased their audience and were hissed, they were obliged to take off their masks ; but. those who acted in the Atellanae were not obliged to do so. (Fest. s. v. Personata falula ; Macrob. Sat. ii. 7.) The Roman mimes never wore masks. [Minus.] (Compare Fr. De Ficoroni, Dissertatio de Larvis scenicis et Figuris comicis ant. Rom.., Rome 1736 and 1750, 4to; Fr. Stieve, Dissertatio de reiscenicae apud Romanos Origine.} [L. S.]
PERTICA, the pole, used by the agrimen- sores, was also called decemteda because it was ten feet long. On account of its use in assigning lands to the members of a colony, it is sometimes represented on medals by the side of the augurial plough. (Propert. iv. 1. SO.) [J. Y.]
PES (ttoi/s), a foot, the standard measure of length among the Greeks and Romans, as well as among nearly all other nations, both ancient and
modern. Very little needs to be ridded to what has been said of the Greek and Roman feet under mensura.
The Romans applied the uncial division [As] to the foot, which thus contained 12 miciae, whence our inches ; and many of the words used to express certain numbers of unciae are applied to the parts of the foot. (Veget. de Re Milit. i. 5 j Plin. H.N. xxvii. 5. s. 11, xiii. 15.) It was also divided into 1 6 digiti (finger-breadths) : this mode of division was used especially^ by architects and land-surveyors, and is found on all the foot-measures that have come down to us. Pollex (the thumb), which is used in modern Latin for an inch, is not found in the ancient writers, but Pliny (H.N. xxvii. ,9, xv. 24, xiii. 23) uses the adjective pollicaris (of a thumb's breadth or thickness).
From the analogy of the as, we have also dupon-dium for 2 feet (Colum. iii. .15, &c.), and pes. sestertius for 2i feet. (Leg. XII. Tab., Tab. viii.) The chief subdivisions and multiples of the foot will be found mentioned under mensura, and more fully described in their proper places. (See also the Tables.) One itinerary measure, which has been omitted in its proper place, is the Leuga9 or Leuca, which was a Gallic measure = 1500 passus or l^ mile. (Ammian. Marc. xvi. 12; Itin. Antonin.) Stones are still found on the roads in France with distances marked on them \nLeugae. [MiLLiARE.]
The square foot (pes quadratus) is called by Frontinus constrains, and by Boethius contractus. Frontinus applies the term quadratus to the cubic foot, and the same, as a measure of capacity, was called quadrantal.
Certain peculiar foot-measures, differing from the ordinary ones, are mentioned by ancient writers. The Samian, which Avas the same as the Egyptian foot, is known from the length of the Egyptian cubit as derived from the Nilometer (namely, 1774278576inches) to have contained 11 '82852384 inches, or more than 11-| inches. A larger foot than the common standard seems to have been used in Asia Minor. Heron (de Mens. p. 368) names the Royal or Philaeterian foot as being 1 6 finger-breadths, and the Italian as 13^-, and he also
mentions a mile (piXiov) of 5400 Italian or 4500 royal feet. Ideler supposes that the Italian foot means the common Roman, and the royal a Greek foot larger than the common standard, corresponding to the stadium of 7 to the mile, which had been introduced before Heron's time, namely, the tenth century. The Pes Drusianus or foot of Drusus, contained 13^- Roman inches = 1 3'1058 English inches. It was used bevond the bound-
aries of Italy for measuring land, and was the standard among the Tungri in Lower Germany.
(Hussey, on Ancient Weights, &c., Appendix ; Wurm, de Pond, chaps. 6 and 7 ; Bb'ckh's Metrolog. Untersucli. pp. 196, &c. ; Ideler, L'dngen mid Fl'd-chenmasse ; Freret, Observations stir le Rapport dcs Mtsures Grecques et des Misures Romaines, Mem. de 1'Acad. d'lnscrip. t. xxiv. pp. 551, &c. [P.S.] PESSI (7T€(T(roi). [latrunculi.] PE'SSULUS. [janua, p. 626, b.J PETALISMUS (TreTaAto-juos). [ExsiLiUM, p. 515, a.]
PETASUS. [pileus.] PETAURISTAE. [petaurum.] PETAURUM (Treravpov, TreVeupoj/) is said by the Greek grammarians to have been a pole or board, on which fowls roosted, (Hesych, s. v. ; Pollux, x,