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frwywv, or pointed beard, was likewise bald-headed, had extended eye-brows, and was looking ill-tem­pered. 9. The Av«:o,u7j5eios had a thick beard, was conspicuous on account of his long chin, and the form of his eyebrows expressed great curiosity.

The annexed comic mask, representing an old man, is taken from the Museo Borbon. vol. i. tab. A.

2. Comic masks for young men. Pollux enu­merates ten masks of this kind. 1. The irdyxp'n^^os formed the transition from the old to the young men ;

lie had "but few wrinkles on his forehead, showed a muscular constitution (yu/^ctoTircos), was rather red in the face, the upper part of his head was bald, his hair was red, and his eyebrows raised. 2. The veaviffKos /.teAas was younger than the pre­ceding one, and with low eyebrows. He repre­sented a young man of good education and fond of gymnastic exercises. 8. The veaviffKos ouAos, or the thick-haired young man, was young and hand­some, and of a blooming countenance, his eyebrows were extended, and there was only one wrinkle upon his forehead. 4. The veaviffKos ciTraAds, his hair was like that of the irdyxpflffTos, but he was the youngest of all, and represented a tender youth brought up in seclusion from the world. 5. The aypoutos or rustic young man, had a dark com­plexion, broad lips, a pug-nose, and a crown of hair round his head. 6. The eTnVetffTos- (TTpaTi<*>T7i$ or the formidable soldier, with black hair hanging over his forehead. 7. The €iri(Tei<rro? fievrepos was the same as the preceding, only younger and of a fair complexion. 8. The /cdAa£ or the flatterer, and 9. The irapdcriTQS or parasite were dark (com­pare Athen. vi. p. 237), and had aquiline noses. Both were apparently of a sympathising nature ; the parasite, however, had broken ears, was merry-looking, and had a wicked expression about his eyebrows. 10. The elitaviKos represented a stranger in splendid attire, his beard was shaved and his cheeks pierced through. The ffiKeXmos was another parasite.

3. Comic masks for male slaves. Of this class seven masks are mentioned. 1. The mask repre­senting a very old man was called Trdiriros, and had grey hair to indicate that he had obtained his liberty. 2. The r^ye^v ^spaTrtav had his red hair platted, raised eyebrows, and a contracted forehead. He was among slaves the same character as the irpecrSurys among freemen. 3. The fcdr<a Tpi%iay, or Kara? rerpixw/xeVos, was half bald-headed, had red hair and raised eyebrows. 4. The ov\os iS-epaTrcoj', or the thick-haired slave, had red hair and a red countenance ; he was without eyebrows, and had a distorted countenance. 5. The &£pdir<av p,€<ros was bald-headed and had red hair. 6. The foepdTTUj' t€tti£ was bald-headed and dark, but had two or three slips of hair on his head and on. his chin, and his countenance was distorted. 7. The eTriffeiffTos ^ye^y, or the fierce-looking slave, resembled the ^ye/i&y frtpdirow with the exception of the hair.

4. Comic masks for old women. Pollux men­tions three, viz. the ypa'ffiiov i<txv^v or Av/cat-yioy. a tall woman with many but small wrinkles,

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and pale but with animated eyes; the


ypavs, or the fat old woman with large wrinkle^ and a band round her head keeping the hair to^ gether ; and the ypa'iSiov oitcovpov, or the domestic old woman. Her cheeks were hollow, and she had only two teeth on each side of her mouth.

5. Comic masks for young women. Pollux men* tions fourteen, viz. — 1. The yyvfy AeKTj/cfy, or the talkative woman ; her hair was smoothly combed down, the eyebrows rather raised, and the com­plexion white. 2. The ywfy ov\t] was only dis­tinguished for her fine head of hair. 3. The K6prj had her hair combed smoothly, had high and black eyebrows, and a white complexion. 4. The i^ewSo* ic6pf] had a whiter complexion than the former, her hair was bound up above the forehead, and she was intended to represent a young woman who had not been married more than once. 5. Another mask of the same name was only distinguished from the former by the irregular manner in which the hair was represented. 6. The (nrapToir6\ios Ae/crnc??, an elderly woman who had once been a prostitute, and whose hair was partly grey. 7. The TraAAa/c?] resembled the former, but had a better head of hair. 8. The reAeioy eraipLKhv was more red in the face than the t|/eu50Kop?7, and had locks about her ears. 9. The ercupiSjov was of a less good ap­pearance, and wore a band round the head. 10. The Sidxpwos eraipa derived the name from the gold with which her hair was adorned. 11. The Sidfiirpos iraipa, from the variegated band wound around her head. 12. The ActyuraSioz', from the cir­cumstance of her hair being dressed in such a man­ner that it stood upright upon the head in the form of a lampas. 13. The avpa irepixovpos represented a female slave newly bought and wearing only a white chiton. 14. The TrapatyYitytffTov was a slave distinguished by a pug-nose and her hair ; she attended upon hetaerae, and wore a crocus -coloured chiton.

Numerous as these masks are, the list cannot by any means be considered as complete, for we know that there were other standing masks for persons following particular kinds of trade, which are not mentioned in Pollux. Maeson of Megara, for ex­ample, is said to have invented a peculiar mask called after his own name /uaicrwz/, another for a slave, and a third to represent a cook. (Athen. xiv. p. 659.) From this passage of Athenaeus we also learn that Stephanus of Byzantium wrote a work

III. masks used in the satyric drama. The masks used in this species of the Greek drama were intended to represent Satyrs, Silenus, and similar companions of Dionysus, whence the ex­pressions of the countenances and the form of their heads may easily be imagined. Pollux only men­tions the grey-headed Satyr, the unbearded Satyr, Silenus, and the irdinros, and adds that the charac­ters of all the other Satvric masks either resembled


these, or were sufficiently expressed in their names, e.g. the Papposilenus was an old man with a very predominant animal character. (Compare Eichstadt, de Dramate Comico-SatyrieO) p. 81.) A grotesque mask of a Satyr, together with one of the finest specimens of a tragic mask, is contained in the Townly Gallery in the British Museum, and is re­presented on the following page.

As regards the earliest representations of the re-

gular drama among the Romans, it is expressly

stated by Diomcdes (iii. p. 486, ed. Putsch.), that

[masks were not used, -but merely -the galerus 0r

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