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about them a distinct and large community living without the city, chiefly formed of the emancipated vassals of the dominant class, and called " Pfahlbiirger," or citizens of the " pale," the suburbs in which they lived being surrounded by palisades. The Norman conquest of England presents a striking parallel to the Dorian conquest of Laconia, both in its achievement and consequences. The Saxons, like the old Achaians, were deprived of their lands, excluded from all offices of trust and dignity, and reduced, though personally free, to a state of political slavery. The Normans on the contrary, of whatever rank in their own country, were all nobles and warriors, compared with the conquered Saxons, and for a long time enjoyed exclusively the civil and ecclesiastical administration of the land.
For further details see Arnold, Tlmcyd. lib. i. c. 101, and Appendix ii. ; Thierry, Plistoire de la Conqutte de PAngleterre par les Normands^ Livres iv.—vii. [R. W.J
PERIPOLI (TrepfrroAoi). [EPHEBUS.]
PERISCELIS (irepitnceAfe, Long. Past. i. 2 ; Menander, ap. Polluc. ii. 194, v. 100, Hor. Ep. i. 17. 56 ; Petron. 67). Much controversy has arisen with regard to the true meaning of this word. The etymology points out merely that it was something worn round the leg (rrepl ovceAos), but from the context of the passage in Horace where it is found we must at once infer that it was a trinket. The Scholiast explains it as "ornamentum pedis circum crura," and hence we can scarcely doubt that it denotes an anklet or bangle, especially since we know that these were commonly worn not only by the Orientals, the Egyptians, and the Greeks, but by the Roman ladies also. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 3. s. 12 ; compare Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, vol. iii. p. 374.) This explanation perfectly accords with the expressions of Tertullian (de Cultu Feminarum, ii. sub fin.), where the periscelium is spoken of as decorating the leg in the same manner as the bracelet adorns the wrist and the necklace the throat. The anklet is frequently represented in the paintings of Greek figures on the walls of Pompeii, as in the following representation of a Nereid. (Museo Borbonico., vol. vi. tav. xxxiv.)
It must be observed, however, that the Greek lexicographers Hesychius, Photius, and Suidas, interpret TrepiffKeXr) and TrepurKsXia, by /3pa/c/aa, (^eytuvaAia, and St. Jerome (JEpist. ad Fabiol.} expressly states that the Greek TrepurKeXrj were the same with the Latin feminalia, that is, drawers reaching from the navel to the knees. In the ^eptuagint we find 7re/>icrKeAes (sct eVSu/xa) in
Ex'od. xxviii. 42, xxxix. 28, Levit. vi. 10, and irepicrKeXiov in Levit. xvi. 4, which our translators uniformly render, and apparently with accuracy, linen breeches. [W. R.J
PERISTIARCHUS (vcpurriapxos). [EccLE-sia, p. 441, b.]
PERISTROMA. [tapes ; velum.]
PERISTYLIUM (ire/waTiJAioiO, as its name implies, was a continued row or series of rows of columns all round a court or building, in contra distinction to porticus (<7Toa), in which the pillars did not surround a space, "but were arranged in one or more parallel lines. The enclosed court was also called peristylium. The chief specific use of the word is in relation to the ancient dwelling- houses. [domus, p. 428, a.] [P. S.j
PERJURIUM. [JUSJURANDUM.] PERIZO'MA (Trepi'CoJjUa). [SUBLIGACULUM.J PERO (apguA??, dim. apSvXis ; icapSarivt], Xen. Anab. iv. 5. § 14), a low boot of untanned hide (erudus, Virg. Aen. vii. 690 ; Brunck, Anal. i. 230), worn by ploughmen (peronatus arator, Pers. v. ] 02) and shepherds, as exemplified in the woodcut, at p. 808, and by others employed in rural occupations. (Juv. xiv. 186.) It had a strong sole (Theocrit. vii. 26), and was adapted to the foot with great exactness. (Galen, in Hippoc. Lib. iv.) It was also called Tr7]\o7rdri^ on account of its adaptation for walking through clay and mire. In the Greek mythology Perseus was represented wearing boots of this description with wings at-, taehed to them. (Lycophron, 839.) Diana wore them, when accoutred for the chace. (Brunck, Anal. iii. 206.) [cothurnus.]
The term apSvX-r] is applied to an appendnge to the Greek chariot. (Eurip. Hippol. 1179, Here. Fur. 1275.) It seems to have been a shoe fast ened to the bottom of the chariot, into which the driver inserted his foot to assist him in driving and to prevent him from being thrown out. [J. Y.j PERPE'TUA ACTIO. [Acxio.]
PERSAE or STATUAE PERSICAE were figures which were used in place of columns, like the Caryatides, Atlantes, and Telamones. The. tradition respecting their invention is that they were first used in the Portions Persica which was built at Sparta out of the spoils of the battle of Plataeae (Vitruv. i. 1. § 6). Pausanias, however, (iii. 2) describes the statues of the conquered Per sians, as being eirl t&v Ki6vuv. [P-S.J PERSECUTG'RIA ACTIO. [actio.]
PERSONA (larva, irpoauTrov or 7rpo<7W7r€?oi'), a mask. Masks were worn by Greek and Roman actors in nearly, all dramatic representations. This custom arose undoubtedly from the practice of smearing the face with certain juices and colours, and of appearing in disguise, at the festivals of Dionysus. [DiONYSiA.] Now as the Greek drama arose out of these festivals, it is highly probable that some mode of disguising the face was as old as the drama itself. Choerilus of Samoa, however, is said to have been the first who introduced regular masks. (Suid. s. v. XoipfAAos.) Other writers attribute the invention of masks to Thespis or Aeschylus (Horat. ad Pis. 278), though the latter, had probably only the merit of perfecting and com pleting the whole theatrical apparatus and costume. Phrynichus is said to have first introduced female masks. (Suid. s. v. ^pvyixos.) Aristotle (Pott. ii. 22) was unable to discover who had first intro duced the use. of masks in comedy. Some maska