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PERIOECI.

find, for instance, that painters exhibited their works in a pergula that they might be seen by those who passed by (Lucil. ap. Lactant. i. 22), and Apelles is said to have concealed himself in his pergula behind his pictures that he might over­hear the remarks of those who looked at them. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 36. § 12.) Such places were occupied by persons, who, either by working or sitting in them, wished to attract the attention of the public. (Salmas. ad Script. Hist. Aug. pp. 458, 459.) Hence we find them inhabited by poor philosophers and grammarians who gave instruction and wished to attract notice in order to obtain pupils. (Suet. Aug. 94, de Itlustr. Grammat. 1U ; Flav. Vopisc. Saturnin. 10 ; Juven. xi. 137.)

It should be observed that scholars do not agree as to the real meaning of pergula: Scaliger (ad Plant. Pseud, i. 2. 79) describes it as a part of a house built out into the street, as in some old houses of modern times ; Ernesti (ad Suet. Aug. 94) thinks that a pergula is a little room in the upper part of a house which was occasionally used by poor philosophers as an observatory. But neither of these two definitions is so applicable to all the passages in which the word occurs as that which we have proposed. [L. S.]

PERIACTOS (ir€piaKTos\a theatrical machine, consisting of three scenes, placed in the form of a triangle (or rather, triangular prism) on a revolving platform, so that, by simply turning the machine, the scene could be changed. It was chiefly used when a god was to be introduced with the accom­ paniment of thunder. The name was also applied to the space which was provided for the machine in the erection of the theatre. (Vitruv. v. 7 ; Pollux, iv. 126.) [P.S.]

PERIDEIPNON (veplfewov). [funus, p. 557, b.]

PERIDROMIDES. [xystus.] PERIOECI (irepioLKot). This word properly denotes the inhabitants of a district lying around some particular locality, but is generally used to describe a dependent population, living without the walls or in the country provinces of a domin­ant city, and although personally free, deprived of the enjoyment of citizenship, and the political rights conferred by it. The words crvvotKoi and jueVoiKoi have an analogous meaning.

A political condition such as that of the Perioeci of Greece, and like the vassalage of the Germanic nations, could hardly have originated in anything else than foreign conquest, and the Perioeci of Laconia furnish a striking illustration of this. Their origin dates from the Dorian conquest of the Peloponnesus, when the old inhabitants of the country, the Achaians, submitted to their con­querors on certain conditions, by which, according to Ephorus (Strab. viii. p. 364), they were left in possession of their private rights of citizenship (tVori/xia), such as the right of intermarriage with the Dorians, and also of their political franchise. They suffered indeed a partial deprivation of their lands, and were obliged to submit to a king of foreign race, but still they remained equal in law to their conquerors, and were eligible to all offices of state except the sovereignly. 'Itro-vo^oi jueTexovres. Kal iroXirdas Kal dpx6i'wz/. (Arnold. Thucyd. vol. i. p. 641.) But this state of things did not last long : in the next generation after the conquest, either from the lust of increased dominion on the part of the Dorians* or from an

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PERIOECI.

unsuccessful attempt by the Achaians to regain their independence, the relation between the two parties was changed. The Achaians were reduced from citizens to vassals ; they were made tributary to Sparta (o-wreAeTs), and their lands were sub­jected to a tax, perhaps not so much for the sake of revenue as in token of their dependence (Ephor. L c.) ; they lost their rights of citizenship (laro-Ti/xia), such as that of intermarriage with the Do­rians, the right of voting in the general assembly, and their eligibility to important offices in the state, such as that of a senator, &c. It does not, however, appear that the Perioeci (especially in the Historic times) were generally an oppressed peo­ple, though kept in a state of political inferiority to their conquerors. On the contrary, the most distinguished amongst them were admitted to offices of trust (Thucyd. viii. 61), and sometimes invested with Haval command (Id. viii. 22), but probably only because they were better suited for it than the Spartans themselves, who did not set a high value on good sailorship. Moreover, the Perioeci sometimes served as heavy-armed soldiers or troops of the line : at the battle of Plataeae, for instance, they supplied 10,000 men, 5000 hoplites and 5000 light-armed (Herod, ix. 61), a circumstance which seems to imply a difference of rank connected with a dif­ference of occupation amongst the Perioeci them­selves. Again, at Sphacteria 292 prisoners were taken, of whom 120 were Spartans and the rest irepioiKot. (Mliller, iii. 2. § 3.) We also read of /caAol KayaQol) " or accomplished and well-born " gentlemen, amongst the Perioeci serving as volunteers in the Spartan service. (Xen. Hell. v. 3. § 9.) But still it is not to be expected, it is not natural, that men competent to the discharge of high functions in a state, and bearing its burdens, should patiently submit to an exclusion from all political rights. Accordingly we find, that on the rising of the Helots in b. c. 464, some of the Perioeci joined them. (Thucyd. i. 101.) When the Thebans invaded Laconia (b. c. 369), the Perioeci were ready to help them. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. § 25.) In connection with the insurrection of Cinadon we are told that the Perioeci were most bitter against the ruling Spartans. (Id. iii. 3. § 6.) From these and other facts (Clin. F. H. Append, xxii.) it appears that the Perioeci of Laconia, if not an oppressed, were sometimes a disaffected and discontented class ; though in cases of strong ex­citement, or of general danger to the whole of Greece, they identified themselves with their con-

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querors. The very relation indeed which subsisted between them was sufficient to produce in Sparta a jealousy of her subjects, with corresponding feelings on their part. Nor can we suppose that the Dorians would willingly permit the Perioeci to acquire strength and opulence, or even to settle in large towns. (Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 307.) In fact it is stated by Isocrates (Panath. p. 307), that the Dorians intentionally weakened the Achaians by dispersing them over a great number of hamlets, which they called TroAets, though they were less powerful than the country parishes of Attica, and were situated in the most unproductive parts of Laconia, the best land of which was reserved for the Spartans. It is not, however, necessary to under­stand the orator as speaking of a uniform practice ; and another of his statements, to the effect that the Ephori could put any of the Perioeci to death [ (p. 271) without trial, is either-a perversion of th$

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