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to him who had been victorious in all the five games, or to the person who had conquered his antagonist in at least three of the games ; but nothing can be ., determined on this point with any certainty. That the decision as to who was to be rewarded was considered difficult by the Greeks themselves,seems to be implied by the fact that at Olympia there
As regards the rpiay^os mentioned above, several .statements of ancient writers suggest, that the whole of the pentathlon was not always performed regularly and from beginning to end ; and the words by which they designate the abridged game, Tpicry^s, airoTpid^eiv^ and rpiffl irepietvai^ lead us to suppose that the abridged contest only consisted of three games, and most probably of those three which gave to the pentathlon its peculiar character, viz. leaping and throwing the discus and the spear. (Dion Chrysost. Aicry. i. p. 279, ed. Reiske ; Schol. ad Aristid. ap. Phot. Cod. p. 409, Bekker ; Mtiller, Ancient Art and its Rem. § 423. 3.) The reason for abridging the pentathlon in this manner may have been the wish to save time, or the circum-.stance that athletae who had been conquered in the first three games were frequently discouraged, and declined continuing the contest. When the triagmos was introduced at Olympia is not mentioned any where, but Krause infers with great probability from Pausanias (v. 9. § 3) that it was in 01. 77.
The pentathlon required and developed very great elasticity of all parts of the body, whence it was principally performed by young men (Schol. ad Plat. Amat. p. ]35, d, &c.) ; and it is probably owing to the fact, that this game gave to all parts of the body their harmonious development, that Aristotle (Rhet. i. 5) calls the pentathli the most handsome of all athletae. The pentathlon was for the same reason also regarded as very beneficial in a medical point of view, and the Elean Hysmon, who had from his childhood suffered from rheuma tism, was cured by practising the pentathlon, and became one of the most distinguished athletae. (Paus. vi. 3. § 4.) (Compare G. Fr. Philipp, De Pentatlilo sive Quinquertio Commentatio^ Berlin, 1827; Krause, Gymnastik und Agonistik der Hel- lenen, pp. 476—497.) [L. S.]
PENTECONTERUS (irei/T^oVropos). [NA-vis, p. 784, a.]
PENTECOSTE (ire^/coor^), a duty of two per cent, levied upon all exports and imports at Athens. (Harpocr. s. v. hsvt^koctt^.') Thus, it was-levied on corn (Demosth. c. Neaer. 1353) ; which, however, could only be imported, exportation being prohibited by law (Demosth. c. Lacr. 941) ; and also on woollen cloth, and other manufactured goods. (Demosth. c. Mid. 558.) On imports the duty was payable on the unloading (Demosth. c. Lacr. 932); on exports, probably, when they were put on board. The money was collected by persons called TrevrriKocrrro\6'yoi^ who kept a book in which they entered all customs re-
•ceived. Demosthenes refers to their entry (cbro-7pa<£^), to prove that a ship was not laden with more than a certain quantity of goods, (c. Pliorm. 909.) The merchant who paid the duty was said TrevTriKovreveffdai. All the customs appear to have been let to farm, and probably from year to year. They were let to the highest bidders by the ten 7rwA?7TcJ, acting under the authority of the
senate. The farmers were called TeAwrai, and were said wvetfrOai t^v TrtvTf}Ko<TTi\v. They might either collect the duty themselves, or employ others for that purpose. Several persons often joined together in the speculation, in which case the principal, in whose name the bidding took place, and who was responsible to the state, was called apxdvns or T€\<ai'dpx'n$. Sureties were usually required. (Demosth. c. Timocr. 713; Andoc. de Myst. 17, ed. Steph.) Whether the customs on different articles of merchandise were farmed altogether, or sepa rately, does not appear. The corn-duty at least was kept distinct (Demosth. c. Neaer. 1353): and this was the case with another tax. (Aesch. c. Timarch. 3 6.) With respect to the amount of the revenue derived from this source, the reader may consult Bockh (Pull. Econ. of Athens^ p. 315, &c., 2d ed.). The TrevrTj/cotrTT] has been thought by some to be the same with the eAAj/xeVioj/, men tioned by Pollux (viii. 132, ix. 30), but this was more probably a duty paid for the use of the har bour, whether goods were unladen or not ; and was perhaps the same as the ettai-ocrr^, mentioned by Xenophon (de Rep. Aili. i. 17) as being paid by foreign ships entering the Peiraeeus, and alluded to by Aristophanes. (Vesp. 658.) Bockh's conjec ture, that, besides a personal harbour due, a duty- was levied of one per cent, on all the goods on board, appears less probable ; for it would be un reasonable to exact a customs duty on goods not landed ; and, if they were to be landed, why should the TrevTrjKocrr-fi be required in addition to the cKaroffT'f]. [C. R. K.]
PENTECOSTYS (iWTTjKoorife). [exkrci-tus, p. 483, a.]
PEPLUM (TreVAos), a shawl, differing from the chlamys in being much larger, and from the pallium in being finer and thinner and also considerably larger. It was sometimes used as a cover to protect valuable articles of furniture (Horn. //. v. 194) or to adorn a throne (Od. vii. 96), but-most commonly as a part of the dress of females (Horn. II. v. 315, 734, 735, viii. 384, Od. xv, 123 —128, ecsi/cfe, //. xiv. 178; Eurip. Hec. 1013, Med. 791 ; Theocrit. i. 33) ; although instances occur, even among the Greeks, in which it is worn by the other sex, unless we suppose the term to be in these instances improperly put for (f>apos. (Eurip. Ion, 1033 ; Theocrit. vii. 17.) In Persia and other Eastern countries the shawl was no doubt worn anciently, as it is at the present day, by both sexes. (Aeschyl. Pers. 204, 474,1030,1061.') Also in Bacchanalian processions it was worn by men both in allusion to Oriental habits, and because they then avowedly assumed the dress of females. (Eurip. Bacch. 783—791.) Women of high rank wore their shawls so long as to trail upon the ground. (TpcoctSas eAftrecrtTreTrAous, Horn. II. vi. 442 ; 'EAeVrj TawTre-rrAos, Od. iv. 305.) Like all other pieces of cloth used for the amictus, it was often fastened by means of a brooch [fibula] (Soph. Track. 920 ; Callim. Lav. Pall. 70 ; Apollon. Rhod. iii. 833), and was thus displayed upon the statues of female divinities, such as Diana (Brunck, Anal. iii. 206) and the goddess Rome. (Sidon. Apollin. Carm. v. 18.) Tt was, however, frequently worn without a brooch in the manner represented in the annexed woodcut, which is copied from one of Sir Wm. Hamilton's vases (vol. iii. pi. 58). Each of the females in this group wears a shift falling down to her feet [tunica],