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On this page: Pec – Pecten – Pecuarii – Peculatus – Peculio – Peculium Cast Rense – Pecunia – Pedaneus Judex – Pedarii – Pedisequi – Pedum


PECTEN (/creis), a comb. The Greeks and Ilomans used combs made of box-wood (Brunck, Anal. i. ,221; Ovid. Fast. vi. 23; Mart. xiv. 25), which they obtained, as we do, from the shores of the Euxine sea. The mountain ridge of Cytorus in Galatia was particularly celebrated for this pro­duct. (Ovid. Met. iv. 311.) The Egyptians had ivory combs (Apul. Met. xi. p. 121, ed. Aldi), which also came into use by degrees among the Romans. (Claudian, de Nupt. Honor. 102.) The golden comb, ascribed to the goddesses, is of course imaginary. (Callim. in Lav. Pall. 31.) The wooden .combs, found in Egyptian tombs, are toothed on one side only ; but the Greeks used them with teeth on both sides, as appears from the remains of combs found at Pompeii (Donaldson's Pompeii, vol. ii. pi. 78), and from the representation of three combs, exactly like our small-tooth combs, on the Amyclaean marbles. (Memoirs relating to Turkey, edited by Walpole, p. 452.)

The principal use of the comb was for dressing the hair (Ovid. Amor. i. 14. 15, Met. xii. 409), in doing which the Greeks of both sexes were re­markably careful and diligent. (Herod, vii. 208.) To go with uncombed hair was a sign of affliction. (Soph. Oed. Col. 1257.)

A comb with iron teeth was used in corn-fields to separate the grain from the straw, whilst it was yet standing. (Col. de Re Rust. ii. 21.) This method of reaping was called pectinare segetem. A painting in the sepulchral grotto of El Kab in .Egypt represents a man combing flax for the pur­pose of separating the linseed from the stem. The rake used in making hay is called rarus pecten (Ovid. Rem. Amor. 192), because its teeth are far apart ; but this may be only a poetical use of the term.

Two portions of the Greek lyre were called the combs (Eratosth. Cataster. 24) ; they may have been two rows of pegs, to which the strings were tied. The use of the comb in weaving, and the transference of its name to the plectrum, are ex­ plained under tel a. [J'. Y.]

PECUARII, the name given to persons who pastured their cattle on the public lands (pascutt), for which they were bound to pay a tax to the state, called scriptura. But in the earlier times of the republic many persons supported their cattle on the public pastures without paying this tax at all, or paying less than was legally due ; and hence the word pecuarii was frequently employed to signify those persons who thus illegally made use of the public pastures. They were often prose­cuted by the aediles and fined (Ov. Fast. v. 283— 294; Liv. x. 23, 47, xxxiii. 42, xxxv. 10; Fes-tus, p. 238, ed. Miiller.)

PECULATUS is properly the misappropriation or theft of public property (pecunia publica). whether it was done by a functionary or by a private person. Labeo defines it thus, " pecuniae publicae atit sacrae furtum, non ab eo factum, cujus periculo est." The person guilty of this offence was Peculator. Cicero (de Off. iii. 18) enumerates Peculatores with sicarii, venefici, testa-mentarii and fures. The origin of the word ap­pears to be Pecus, a term which originally denoted that kind of movable property which was the chief sign of wealth. Originally trials for Peculatus were before the Populus, or before the Senate. (Liv. v. 32, xxxvii. 57, xxxviii. 54.) In the time of .Cicero matters of peculatus were one of the Quaes-

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tiones 'perpetuae, which imply some Lex de Pecu- latu, and such a Lex is by some writers enumerated among^the Leges Sullanae, but without stating the authority for this assertion. Two Leges relating to Peculatus are cited in the Digest, Lex Julia Peculatus and Lex Julia de Residuis (Dig. 48. tit. 13) \. but these may be the same Lex, though quoted as two Leges, just as the Lex Julia de Adulteriis comprised^ provision De Fundo Dotali, which chapter is often quoted as if it were a sepa--- rate Lex. Matters relating to sacrilege were also comprised in the Lex Julia Peculatus (ne quis ex pecimia, sacra, religiosa publicave auferat, &c.) ; matters relating to the debasement of the coinage ; the erasing or cancelling of tabulae publicae, &c. The Lex de Residuis applied to those who had re­ ceived public money for public purposes and had retained it (apud quern pecunia publica resedit}. The penalty under this Lex, on conviction, was a third part of the sum retained. The punishment which was originally aquae et ignis interdictio, was changed into Deportatio under the Empire: the offender lost all his rights, and his property was forfeited. (Inst. 4. tit. 18. §9.) Under the Em­ pire sacrilege was punished with death. A " Sa- crilegus" is one who plunders public sacred places. (Rein,. Das Criminalreclit dcr JRomer, p. 672.) ' [G. L.]

PECULIO, ACTIO DE. [servos.]

PECti'LIUM. [servus.]



PECUNIA. [nummus.] PECU'NIA. [herbs, p. 598, a.] PECU'NIACERTA. [obligations,p.818.] PECU/NIAE REPETUNDAE. [repe-


PEDANEUS JUDEX. [judex pedaneus.j

PEDARII. [senatus.]

PEDISEQUI, a class of slaves, whose duty was to follow their master when he went out of his house. This name does not appear to have been given to any slave, who accompanied his master; but the pedisequi seem to have formed a special class, which was almost the lowest of all. (Nep. Attic. 13; Plant. Mil. Glor. iv. 2. 18.) There was a similar class of female slaves, called pedisequae. (Plant. Asm. i. 3. 31.) Compare Becker, Gallus, vol. i. p. 101.

2 L

PEDUM (Kop&vri, AcrycogoAos, Theocrit. vii. 43, 128), a crook. The accompanying woodcut is taken from a painting found at Civita Vecchia. (Ant. d^Ercolano, vol. iii. tav. 53.) It shows the

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