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PARRICKDA, PARRICFDIUM. [lex cornelia, p. 687.]
PARTHENIAE (vapOevicu or 7rap0e*>e7c«), are, according to the literal meaning of the word, children born by unmarried women (irapdevoi, Horn. 1L xvi. 180), Some writers also designated by this name those legitimate children at Sparta who were born before the mother was introduced into the house of her husband. (Hesych. s. v.; Muller, Dor. iv. 4. § 2.) The partheniae, however, as a distinct class of citizens, appear at Sparta after the first Messenian war and in connection with the foundation of Tarentum ; but the legends as to who they were differ from one another. Hesychius says that they were the children of Spartan citi zens and female slaves ; Antiochus (ap. Strab. vi. p. 278,&c.) states, that they were the sons of those Spartans who took no part in the war against the Messenians. These Spartans were made Helots, and their children were called partheniae, and de clared arLfjLoi. When they grew up, and were unable to bear their degrading position at home, they emigrated, and became the founders of Taren tum. Ephorus (ap. Strab. vi. p. 279) again related the story in a different manner. When the Messe nian war had lasted for a considerable number of years, the Spartan women sent an embassy to the camp of their husbands, complained of their long absence, and stated that the republic would suffer for want of an increase in the number of citizens if the war should continue much longer. Their husbands, who were bound by an oath not to leave the field until the Messenians were conquered, sent home all the young men in the camp, who were not bound by that oath, and requested them to cohabit with the maidens at Sparta. The children thus produced were called partheniae. On the return of the Spartans from Messenia, these par theniae were not treated as citizens, and accord ingly united with the Helots to wage war against the Spartans. But when this plan was found im practicable, they emigrated and founded the colony of Tarentum. (Compare Theopomp. ap. At/ten, vi. p. 271 ; epeunactae.) These stories seem to be nothing but distortions of some historical fact. The Spartans at a time of great distress had per haps allowed marriages between Spartans and slaves or Laconians, or had admitted a number of persons to the franchise, but after wards endeavoured to curtail the privileges of these new citizens, which led to insurrection and emigration. (See Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 352, &c.) [L. S.]
PASCUA PUBLICA. [scriptura.]
PASS US (from pando), a measure of length, which consisted of five Roman feet. (Colum. v. 1 ; Vitruv. x. 14.) [mensura.] The passus was not the single step (gradus\ but the double step ; or, more exactly, it was not the distance from heel to heel, when the feet were at their utmost ordinary extension, but the distance from the point which the heel leaves to that in which it is set down. The mille passuum, or thousand paces, was the common name of the Roman mile. [milliare.]
In connecting the Greek and Roman measures, the word passus was sometimes applied to the extension of the arms, that is, the Greek opyvid, which, however, differed from the true passus by half-a foot ; and, conversely, the gradus was called by Greek writers j3%ta, or rb £%a rb airKovv, and the passus rb jS^jua t& 8nr\ovv. [P.S.]
PASTOPHORUS (Tracrropfyos). The shawl,
richly interwoven with gold (xpv(r6iraa"fos}9 and displaying various symbolical or mythological figures, was much used in religious ceremonies to conduce to their splendour, to explain their signification, and also to veil their solemnity. The maidens, who carried the figured peplus in the Panathenaea at Athens, were called appTjtytipoi. In Egypt, the priests of Isis and Osiris, who probably fulfilled a similar office, were denominated iracrro^opoi, and were incorporated. (Diod. i. 29 ; Porphyr. de Abstin. iv. 8 ; Apul. Met. xi. pp. 124, 128, ed. Aldi.) They appear to have extended themselves together with the extension of the Egyptian worship over parts of Greece and Italy, so that " the College of the Pastophori of Industria," a city of Liguria, is mentioned in an inscription found near Turin. (Maffei, Mus. Veron. p. 230.) The Egyptian college was divided into minor companies, each containing ten pastophori, and each having at its head a leader who was called decurio quinquennalis, because he was appointed for five years. (Apul. Met. xi. ad fin.) Besides carrying the iraoros, or sacred ornamental shawl, they performed other duties in connection with the worship of the temple. It was the office of this class, of priests to raise the shawl with the performance of an appropriate chaunt, so as to discover the godi seated or standing in the adytum (Clem. Alex. Paediag. iii. 2), and generally to show the temple with its sacred utensils, of which, like modern sacristans, they had the custody. (Hora-pollo, Hier. i. 41.) In consequence of the supposed influence of Isis and her priesthood in healing diseases, the pastophori obtained a high rank as physicians. (Clem. Alex. Strain, vi. 4. p. 758, ed. Potter.)
It must be observed, that according to another interpretation of iracrros, the pastophori - were ..so, denominated from carrying, not a shawl, but a shrine or small chapel, containing the image of the god. Supposing this etymology to be correct, it is no less true that the pastophori sustained the various offices which have here been assigned to them.
It was indispensably requisite, that so numerous and important a body of men should have a resi dence appropriated to them in the temple to which, they belonged. This residence was called Traerro- <$>6piov. The common use of the term, as applied by the Greeks to Egyptian temples, led to its ap plication to the corresponding part of the temple at Jerusalem by Josephus (Bell. Jud. iv. 12), and by the authors of the Alexandrine version of the Old Testament. (1 Cliron. ix. 26, 33, xxiii. 28 \.Jer. xxxv. 4 ; 1 Mace. iv. 38, 57.) [J. Y.]
PATER PATRATUS. [fetiales.]
PATERA, dim. PATELLA (fid\7)\ a round dish ; a plate ; a saucer. Macrobius (Sat. v. 21), explaining the difference between the patera and the carchesium, says that the former received its name from its flat expanded form ( planum ac patens). The paterae of the most common kind are thus described by Festus (s. v. Patellae), " Vasa picata parva, sacrifices faciendis apta." (Nigra, patella, Mart. v. 120 ; Rubicunda testa, xiv. 114.) They were small plates of the common red earthenware, on which an ornamental pattern was drawn in the manner described under the article of fictile, and which were sometimes entirely black. Numerous specimens of them may be seen in tha
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