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On this page: Pareisgraphe – Parentalia – Paries



superior archons was at liberty to have two asses­sors (-TrapeSpoi) chosen by himself, to assist him by advice and otherwise in the performance of his various duties. The assessor, like the magistrate himself, had to undergo a SoKt^atrta in the Senate of Five Hundred and before a judicial tribunal, before he could be permitted to enter upon his labours. He was also to render an account (svQvvri) at the end of the year. The office is called an apx"h by Demosthenes (c. Neaer. 1369). The duties of the archon, magisterial and judicial, were so • numerous, that one of the principal objects of having assessors must have been to enable them to get through their business. We find the trd-peSpos assisting the archon at the 7u?£ts 8i/o?s. (Demosth. c. Theoc. 1332.) He had authority to keep order at public festivals and theatres, and to impose a fine on the disorderly. (Demosth. c. Mid. 572.) As the archons were chosen by lot (k\t}-pwroi), and might be persons of inferior capacity, and not very well fitted for their station, it might often be useful, or even necessary for them, t© pro­cure the assistance of clever men of business. (Demosth. c. Neaer. 1372.) And perhaps it was intended that the irapeSpo: should not only as­sist, but in some measure check and control the power of their principals. They are spoken of as being /3o7?0ot, <tv^ov\ol Kal <f>v\a.K€S. Demo­sthenes accuses Stephanus of buying his place of the "Apxwv fia<n\€i>s (c. Neaer. 1369). It was usual to choose relations and friends to be asses­sors ; but they might at any time be dismissed, at least for good cause. (Demosth. c. Neaer. 1373.) The Thesmothetae, though they had no regular TrapeSpo*, used to have counsellors (ffv(A€ov\ot\ who answered the same purpose. {Demesth.c. Theoc. 1330 ; Sch6mann,^»£. Jur. Pub. Gfc. p. 245 ; Meier, Ait. Proc. pp. 57—59.) The office<of irapeSpos was called 7rape5p/a, and to exercise it TrapeSpeuetz/.

From the TrapeSpoi of the archons, we must dis­tinguish those who assisted the evOvvoi in examin­ing and auditing magistrates' accounts. The evOvvoi were a board of ten, and each of them chose two assessors. (Schbmann, Ant. Jur. Pub. Gr. p. 240 ; Meier, Att. Proc. p. 102.) [euthynb.] [C.R.K.]

PAREISGRAPHE (vapetffypculyfj), signifies a fraudulent enrolment in the register of citizens. For this an indictment lay at Athens called t-evtas ypaty-f): and, besides, the stj/^tcu might by their Sia\l/-f)^>i(fis eject any person who was illegally en­ rolled among them. From their decision there might be an appeal to a court of dicasts ; of which the speech of Demosthenes against Eubulides furnishes an example. If the dicasts -confirmed the decision of the Sr/^orat, the appeMant party was sold for a slave. Spurious citizens aare .some­ times called irapsyypairToiy Trapeyysypafji/JLevoi. (Aesch. de Fals. Leg. 38, 51, ed. Steph.) The ex­ pression Trap€L(rypa(p7]s ypaQrj is not Attic. (Seho- mann, Ant. Jur. Pub. Gr. p. 206 ; Meier, Att.Proc. pp. 347—349.) [C. R. K.]

PARENTALIA. [funus, p. 562, b.]

PARIES (to?xos), the wall of a house, in con­ tradistinction to murus (Te?%os), the wall of a city, and maceries (re^o*/), a small enclosure, such as a court-yard ; sometimes refyiov is used for the wall of a house. (See Liddelland Scott.) Among the numerous methods employed by the ancients in constructing walls we find mention of the follow­ ing:— -

I. The paries cratitius, i. o. the wattled or the


lath-and-plaster wall, made of canes or hurdles [crates], covered with clay. (Plin. //. N. xxxv. 14. s. 48 ; Festus, s.v. Solea.) These were used in the original city of Rome to form entire houses (Ovid. Fast. iii. 183, vi. 261 ; Vitruv. ii. 1) ; after­wards they were coated with mortar instead of clay, and introduced like our lath-and-plaster walls in the interior of houses.

II. Vitruvius (1. c.) mentions as the next step9 the practice, common in his time among the Gauls, and continued to our own in Devonshire, of drying square lumps of clay and building them into walls, which were strengthened by means of horizontal bond-timbers (jugamenta) laid at intervals, and which were then covered with thatch.

III. The paries formaceus, i. e. the pise wall, made of rammed earth. [ form A.]

IV. In districts abounding with wood, log-houses were common, constructed, like those of the Sibe­rians and of the modem Americans in the back settlements, of the trunks of trees, which, having been more or less squared, were then laid upon one another in an horizontal position, and had their interstices filled with chips (schidiis\ moss, and clay. After this manner the Colchians erected houses several stories high. (Vitruv. I. c.; com­pare Herod, iv. 108 ; Vitruv. ii. 9.)

V. The paries lateritius, i. e. the brick wall. [later.] Among the Romans the ordinary thick­ness of -an outside wall was 18 inches (sesquipes)^ being the length of the common or L}rdian brick ; but, if the building was more than one story high, the walls at the bottom were either two or three bricks thick (diplinthii aut triplintkii) according to circumstances. The Egyptians sometimes exhibited a cheqtiered pattern, and perhaps other devices, upon the walls of their houses by the alternation of white and black bricks. (Ath. v. p. 208, c.) The Romans, probably in imitation of the Etru­rians, often cased the highest part of a brick wall with a range of terra-cottas (structura and lorica testacea, Vitruv, ii. 8 ; Pallad. de Re Rust. i. 11), eighteen inches high, wit-h projecting cornices, and spouts for discharging the water from the roof. [antefixa.]

VI. The reticulata structura (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 22. s. 51), i. e. the reticulated, or resembling net­work. This structure consists in placing square or lozenge-shaped stones side by side upon their edges, the stones being of small dimensions and ^cemented by mortar (materia ex calce et arena). In many cases the mortar has proved more durable than the stone, especially where volcanic tufa is the material employed, as at Baiae in the Bay of Naples, and in the villa of Hadrian near Tivoli. This kind of building is very common in the an­cient edifices of Italy. Vitruvius says (ii. 8), that it was universally adopted in his time. Walls thus constructed were considered more pleasing to the eye, but less secure than those in which the stones lay upon their flat surfaces. The front of the wall was the only part in which the structure was regular, or the stones cut into a certain form, the interior being rubble-work or concrete (far-tura\ i. e. fragments "and chippings of stone (cae-menta, X^'O imbedded in mortar. Only part of the wall was reticulated: to give it firmness and durability the sides and base were built of brick or of squared stones, and horizontal courses of bricks were laid at intervals, extending through the length and thickness of the wall. These circum-

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