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the importance of the prosecution, as tending to preserve the existing laws, and maintain constitu­tional liberty. (Demosth. c. Tim. 748,749 ; Aesch. c. Ctes. 54, 82, ed. Steph.) Notwithstanding this check, the mania for legislation appears to have in­creased so greatly at Athens in later times, that Demosthenes (c. Leptin. 485) declares that tyfifyur-/xcitcoj' ou5' bnovv Siatyepovffiv of vo/j.ot. This arose from the relaxation of that precautionary law of Solon, which required every measure to be ap­proved by the vo^oQerai, before it could pass into law. (nomothetes, and Schomann, Id. p. 229,) It is obvious that, while the people in assembly liad the power of making decrees which could re­main in force for a year, if they wished to evade the law of Solon, all they had to do was to renew their decree from year to year, and thus in practice the T^f/Ho^a became vopos.

If the year had elapsed, the propounder of the law could not be punished, though the law itself might be repealed in the ordinary way by the in­stitution of proceedings before the j/oju,o06Tcu, before whom it was defended by the five avvfiiKoi. The speech against Leptines Avas made in a proceeding against the law itself, and not against the mover. As the author of the second argument ^says, TrapeA-OSvros rov xpowv, ev cj> vneuOuvos 3\v Kpicrei ko.i Ttyicopfa ypdtycw ns v6[j,ov, etyaivero AeTrriVijs aicivSvvos. '6Qev irpbs aurb^, aAA* ou /car' avrov 6 \6yos. (Hermann, Pol. Ant § 132.) [C. R. K.] PARANYMPHUS (irapdw^os). [matri-monium, p. 737, a.]

PARAPET ASMA. [velum.] PARAPHERNA. [Dos.] PARAPRESBEIA (TrapaTrpeo-gei'a), signifies any corrupt conduct, misfeasance, or neglect of duty on the part of an ambassador ; for which he was liable to be called to account and prosecuted on his return home. (Demosth. c. Mid. 515, de flxfs. Leg. 342.) Ambassadors were usually elected by the people in assembly ; they either had in­structions given to them, or not; in the latter case they were called auTOKparopes, envoys with full powers, or plenipotentiary. (Thucyd. v, 45 ; Aesch. c. Ctes. 62, ed. Steph.) To act contrary to their instructions (Trctpa t& ^tpicr/^a TrpevSeveip) was a high misdemeanour. (Demosth. de Fals. Leg. 346.) On their return home they were required imme­diately to make a report of their proceedings (airayyfhheiv t^\v Trpetr^eta^) first to the Senate Five Hundred, and afterwards to the people in assembly. (Aesch. de, Fals. Leg. 30, ed. Steph. ; Aristoph. Ach* 61 ; Schomann, Ant. jur. pub. Gr. p. 234.) This done, they were functi officio j but still, like all other persons who had held an office of trust, they were liable to render an account (svQfooLs) of the manner in which they had dis­charged their duty. (Demosth. de Fals. Leg. 367, 406.) The persons to whom such account was to be rendered were the AoyioTat, and the officers associated with them, called zvQvvoi. A pecuniary account was only rendered in cases where money had passed through the hands of the party ; in other cases, after stating that he had neither spent nor received any of the public money, the accounting party was discharged, unless there was reason for thinking that he deserved to be proceeded against for misconduct. The Xoyurrai themselves had power to summon the party at once to appear as a criminal, and undergo the avaKpiffis in their office , upon which they would direct the


ffvvfiyopoi to prosecute ; and this probably was the ordinary course in case of any pecuniary malver­sation. Accusations, however, of a more general nature were commonly preferred by individuals, giving information to the \oyiffTaiy who, for the purpose of giving any citizen an opportunity of so doing, caused their K"fjpv^ to make proclamation in public assembly, that such a person was about to render his account, and to ask if any one intended to accuse him. If an accuser appeared, his charge would be reduced to the form of a ypaffi, and the prosecution would be conducted in the usual way, the \oyiffrai being the superintending magis­trates. (Pollux, viii. 40, 45 ; Schomann, Id. p. 240; Meier,.4ft.Pm!.pp.214—224.) Magistrates, who were annually elected, rendered their accounts at the end of the official year ; but ambassadors, who were extraordinary functionaries, had no time limited for this purpose. Aeschines delayed giving an account of his embassy to Philip for three years. (Demosth. de Fals. Leg. 374 ; Thirlwall, Gr. Hist. vol. vi. p. 26.) We can hardly suppose, however (as Thirlwall states), that the time of rendering the account was optional with the ambassador him­self • since, not to mention the power of the Aoyi<r-rai, it was open to any man to move for a special decree of the people, that the party should be called to account immediately. The ypaty^ 7rapa7rpecr§e/as was a ri^Tjrbs aywv (Meier,^#. Proc. p. 193) ; and as it might comprise charges of the most serious kind, such as treachery and treason against the state, the defendant might have to apprehend the heaviest punishment. Aeschines (de Fals. Leg. 28, 52) reminds the dicasts of the great peril to which he is exposed, and makes a merit of submitting to his trial without fear. Besides the ypafy^ an €io"ayy€\ia might be brought against an ambassador; upon which the accused would be committed to prison, or compelled to give bail for his appearance. This course was taken by Hyperides against Philo-crates, who avoided his trial by voluntary exile. (Aescnin. c. Ctes. 65, ed. Steph.) [C. R. K.J

PARAS ANGA (6 irapacrdyy^')^ a Persian measure of length, frequently mentioned by the Greek writers. It is still used by the Persians, who call it ferseng^ which has been changed in Arabic mtofarsakh.

According to Herodotus (ii. 6, v. 53, vi. 42) the parasang was the half of the Egyptian schoenus, and was equal to 30 Greek stadia. Suidas (s. v.") and Hesychius (s. v.} assign it the same length ; and Xenophon must also have calculated it at the same, as he says (Anab. ii. 2. § 6) that 16,050 stadia are equal to 535 parasangs (16,050 ^-535 =30.) Agathias (ii. 21), however, who quotes the testimony of Herodotus and Xenophon to the parasang being 30 stadia, says that in his time the Iberi and Persians made it only 21 stadia. Strabo (xi. p. 518) also states, that some writers reckoned it at 60, others at 40, and others at 30 stadia ; and Pliny (//. N. vi. 26. s. 30) informs us, that the Persians themselves assigned different lengths to it. Modern English travellers estimate it variously at from 3£ to 4 English miles, which nearly agrees with the calculation of Herodotus. These variations may probably be accounted for by the fact, to which attention has been called under mensura, that itinerary distances were originally indefinite, and therefore that the values of the parasang, at least those given by the earlier Greek writers, were only computed values. This

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