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of defence. (See the opening of the speech of Iso- crates against Calliraachus.) Before this time all special objections to the adversary's course of pro ceeding seem to have been called avTiypatyal, and sometimes e^uocrmt, because an oath was taken by the party who tendered them. (Lysias, c. Panel. 166, ed. Steph. ; Aristoph. Eccles. 1026; Schol. ad loc. ; Suidas, s. u. 'E|w^ocn'a ; Meier, Att. Proc. pp. 644—650.) [C. R. K.]
PARALUS (TofyaAos), and SALAMI'NIA (ffa\a/jt.Lvia). The Athenians from very early times kept for public, purposes two sacred or state vessels, the one of which Avas called Paralus and the other Salaminia: the crew of the one bore the name of TrapctArrcu or TrapaAo*, and that of the other <raActyuVioz. (Phot. s. v. Hdpa\os and irdpaXoi.) In the former of these two articles Photius erroneously regards the two names as be longing to one and the same ship. (Pollux, vii. 116; Hesych. s. v. HapaXirrjs.) The Snlaminia was also called ATyAia or ©ecupisy because it was used to convey the ftecupol to Delosy on which occasion the ship was adorned with garlands by the priest of Apollo. (Plat. Phaed. p, 58,-c.) Both these ves sels were quick-sailing triremes, and were used for a variety of state purposes :. they conveyed theories, despatches, &c. from Athens, carried treasures from subject countries to Athens, fetched state cri minals from foreign parts to Athens, and the like. (Thucyd. vi. 53, 61.) In battles they were fre quently used as the ships in which the admirals sailed. These vessels and their crew were always kept in readiness to act, in case of any necessity arising ; and the crew, although they could not for the greater part of the year be in actual service, received their regular pay of four oboli ner day all the year round. This is expressly stated only of the Paralus (Hargocrat. and Phot. s. v. Ha/mAos), but may be safely said of the Salaminia also. The statement of the scholiast on Aristophanes (Av. 147 ; comp. Suidas, s. v. ^aXaairia va.vs\ that the Salaminia was only used to convey criminals to Athens, and the Paralus for theories, is incorrect, at least if applied to the earlier times. When Athens had become a great maritime power, and when other ships were employed for purposes for which before either the Salaminia or the Paralus had been used, it is;natural'to suppose that these two vessels were chiefly employed in matters con nected with religion, as theories, and in extraordi nary cases, such, as when a state criminal like Alcibiades was to be solemnly conveyed to Athens. The names of the two ships seem to point to a very early period of the history of Attica, when there was no navigation except between Attica and Salamis, for which the Salaminia was used, and around the coast of Attica, for which purpose the Paralus was destined. In later times the names were retained, although the destination of the ships was principally to serve the purposes of religion, whence they are frequently called the sacred ships. (Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens^ p. 240, 2d ed. ; Goller, ad Thucyd. iii, 33 ; Schb- mann, ad Isaeum, p. 296,) [L. S..]
PARANOIAS GRAPHE (iropawas y patty. This proceeding may be compared to our commission of lunacy, or writ de lunatico inquirendo. It was a suit at Athens that might be instituted by a son or other relation against one who, by reason of madness or mental imbecility, had become inca-paHe of managing his own affairs. If the com-
plaint was well grounded, the court decreed that the next heir should take possession of the lunatic's property, and probably also made some provision for his being put in confinement, or under proper care and guardianship. (Suidas, s. v. Tlapavoia: Xen. Mem. i. 2. § 49 ; Aristoph. Nub. 844 ; Aesch. c. Ctes. 89, ed. Steph.) It is related of Sophocles^ that haying continued to write tragedies to an advanced age, and by reason thereof neglected his family affairs, he was brought before the court by his sons,, and accused of lunacy ; that he then read to the judges his Oedipus Coloneus, which he had just composed, and asked them if a man out of his mind could write such a poem as that; whereupon they acquitted him. (Cic. de Senect. 7.) The story is told differently by the anonymous author of the life of Sophocles ; who speaks, of the suit as taking place between lophon and his father, and seems to intimate that it was preferred before the typdropes. In this last point he is supported by the Scholiast on Aristophanes, but it can hardly be correct; as we have no other authority for supposing that the typdropes had such a jurisdiction^ and Pollux (viii. 89) expressly says that the irapavoias ypaty-f) came before the archon ; to whom indeed it peculiarly belonged, as being a matter connected with family rights ; and, if so, we are to understand that it came before the archon in the regular way, as tiyz^av SiKaa-rrtplov. (Meier, Att. Proc. pp. 296— 298.) It is highly probable that there was some foundation for this anecdote of Sophocles. • He might perhaps have given offence to his sons by that penuriousness which is said to have crept upon him in his old age ; and lophon being a poet, and lying under the suspicion of being assisted by his father, might possibly be induced by a mean jealousy to bring this charge against him. (See Aristoph. Ran. 78, Pax, 697.) The play of Oed. Col. appears to exhibit the wounded feelings of the writer. (See more especially 337, 441.) [C. R. K.]
PARANOMON GRAPHE (vaparipw ypa-(£•?]). An indictment for propounding an illegal, or rather unconstitutional measure or law. We have seen [nomothetes] that any Athenian citizen was at liberty to make a motion in the popular assembly, to pass a new law, or amend an old one. In order to check rash and hasty legislation, the mover of any law or decree, though he succeeded in causing it to be passed, was still amenable to criminal justice, if his enactment was found to be inconsistent with other laws. that, remained in force,, or with the public interest. (Dempsth. c. Timoc. 710, 711.) Any person might institute against him the ypa^ Trap&vSuoov witliin, a year from the passing, of the law. If he was convicted, not only did the law become void, but any punishment might be inflicted on him, at the discretion of the judges before whom he was tried ; for it was a TijUTjrbs ay&v. A person thrice so convicted lost the right of proposing laws, in future. The cognizance of the cause belonged, to the Thesmothetae. (Schumann, Ant.Jur. Pub. Gv. p. 244.) The prosecutor was compelled to take, an oath, called by the same name as that taken to, obtain delay in courts of justice (uTrcujUOfrfa), because it had the effect of delaying the operation of 4he proposed measure, which otherwise might have come into force immediately. (Schoinann, Id, p. 224.) Examples of such prosecutions are the speech of Demosthenes against Timocrates, and that of Aes-chines against Ctesiphon. They both comment on