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On this page: Papyrus – Par Impar Ludere – Parabasis – Parabolon – Paracatabole – Paracatathece – Paradisus


ation was "based upon a text written for the pur­ pose. This text was called the Canticum (Macrob. Sat. iL 7; Plin. Epist. vii. 24), and was mostly written in the Greek language. Some of them may have represented scenes from, or the whole subjects of Greek dramas ; but when Arnobius (adv. Gent. 4, compare Antholog. i. p. 249) states, that whole tragedies of Sophocles and Euripides were used as texts for pantomimic representations, he perhaps only means to say that a pantomimus sometimes represented the same story contained in such a tragedy, without being obliged to act or dance every sentiment expressed in it. The texts of the pantomimes or cantica were sung by a chorus standing in the background of the stage, and the sentiments and feelings expressed by this chorus were represented by the pantomimus in his dance and gesticulation. The time was indicated by the scabdlum* a peculiar kind of sole made of wood or metal, which either the dancer or one of the chorus wore. The whole performance was accompanied by musical instruments, but in most cases by the flute. In Sicily pantomimic dances were called jSaAAtcr/uoi, whence perhaps the modern words ball and ballet. (Compare Lessing, AWiandlung von den Pantomimen der Alien; Grysar, in Ersch and Gruber*s Encyclop. s. v. Pantomimische Kunst des A Iterthums ; Welcker, Die qriechischen Tragodien* pp. 1317, 1409, 3443, 1477.) [L. S.]"

PAPYRUS. [liber.]

PAR IMPAR LUDERE (fymatrjuefe, apnd-£etv, &pria % TrepiTTa Trai^etv), the game at odd and even, was a favourite game among the Greeks and Romans. A person held in his hand a certain number of astragali or other things, and his op-.ponent had to guess whether the number was odd or even. (Pollux, ix. 101 ; Plato, Lys. p. 207 ; Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 248 ; Suet. Aug. 71 ; Nux Eleg. 79 ; Becker, Gallus, vol. ii. p. 233.)

PARABASIS. [comoedia.]

PARABOLON (frapagoXov or irapa€6\iov\ a small fee paid by the appellant party, on an ap­peal (e^)€(7iy) from an inferior to a superior tribu­nal ; as for instance, from an arbitrator or a magistrate, or from the court of the ft-n^rai* or from the Senate of Five Hundred, to the jury or Heliastic court. As to the sum to be paid, and other particulars, we are uninformed. (Pollux, viii. 62,63 ; Meie^AU.Proc. pp. 767, 772.) [C.R.K.]

PARACATABOLE (TrupaKaragoA^), a sum of money required of a plaintiff or petitioner in certain cases, as a security that his complaint or demand was not frivolous, or made on slight and insuffi­ cient grounds. Such was the deposit made in certain inheritance causes, viz. a tenth part of the value of the property sought to be recovered. [heres.] So also in the proceeding termed tVe7r/<TK??jU/m, which was a suit instituted against the public treasury by a creditor to obtain payment out of his debtor's confiscated goods, a fifth part of the value was deposited. It was returned to the petitioner, if successful; otherwise it went to the state. (Suidas, s. v. 'EyeTncr/CTj/^a.) The money was deposited either at the avaKptcns, or on the commencement of the cause. The word irapa- KaragoXTj signifies both the paying of the deposit, and the money deposited ; and, being a word of more general import, we find it used to denote other kinds of deposits, as the Trpvrave'ict. and vapQ.ffraffis. (Pollux, viii. 32; Meier, Ait. Proc. pp. 604, 616—621,) [C. R. K.]


PARACATATHECE (Trapa/rarafl^/o?), ge­nerally signifies a deposit of something valuable with a friend or other person, for the benefit of the owner. Thus, if 1 deliver my goods to a friend, to be taken care of for me ; or if I deposit money with a banker ; such delivery or bailment* or the

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goods bailed or delivered, or the money deposited, may be called irapaicaraO-^Kfj (Herod, vi. 86 ; Demosth. pro Pkorm. 946); and the word is often applied metaphorically to any important trust com^ mitted by one person to another. (Demosth. c. Aphob. 840 ; Aesch. c. Timarcli. 26, ed. Steph., de Fals. Leg. 47.) As every bailee is bound to restore to the bailor the thing deposited ; either on demand (in case of a simple bailment), or on per­formance of the conditions on which it was re­ceived ; the Athenians gave a ivapaKara6^K7]s Siicr] against a bailee who unjustly withheld his property from the owner, uireffrepyo'e r^v TrapaitaraG^K^i/. (Pollux, vi. 154.) An example of such an action against a banker is the rpaire^iriKbs \6yos of Isocrates. A pledge given to a creditor could not be recovered, except on payment of the money owed to him ; but, after selling the article, and satisfying his debt out of the proceeds, he would of course be bound to restore the surplus (if any) to the pledger. It follows from the nature of the •jrapaK. 81/07 that it was ar/jU^Tos, but it is not im­probable that the additional penalty of an^ia might be inflicted on a defendant who fraudulently denied that he had ever received the deposit.

The difficulty of procuring safe custody for money, and the general insecurity of movable pro­ perty in Greece, induced many rich persons to make valuable deposits in the principal temples, such as that of Apollo at Delphi, Jupiter at Olym- pia, and others. (Meier, Alt. Proc. pp. 512—515.) It may be observed that rWsffdai9 TrapaKara.- riOeffOai* in the middle voice* are always used of a person making a deposit for his own benefit* with the intention of taking it up again. Hence the expression decrflcu X&PIV* to confer an obligation, which gives the right (as it were) of drawing upon the obliged party for a return of the favour at some future time. KouifecrQaL is to recover your property or right. (Isocrat. c. Eutliyn. 400, ed. Steph.) . [C. R. K.]

PARADISUS (TrccpaSsicros), was the name given by the Greeks to the parks or pleasure-grounds, which surrounded the country residences of the Persian kings and satraps. They were generally stocked with animals for the chace, were full of all kinds of trees, watered by numerous streams, and enclosed with walls. (Xen. Anab. i. 4. § 10, Cyr. i. 3. § 14, 4. §5, Hell. iv. 1. §33, Oec. iv. 13 ; Diod. Sic. xvi. 41 ; Curt. viii. i. §11, 12 ; Gell. ii. 20.) These paradises were frequently of great extent ; thus Cyrus on one occasion re­viewed the Greek army in his paradise at Celaenae (Xen. Anab. i. 2. § 9), and on another occasion the Greeks were alarmed by a report that there was a great army in a neighbouring paradise. (Id. ii. 4. §16.)

Pollux (ix. 13) says that TrapctSetcro? was a Persian word, and there can be no doubt that the Greeks obtained it from the Persians. The word, however, seems to have been used by other Eastern nations,-and not to have been peculiar to the Per­sians. Gesenius (Lexicon Hebraicum* p. 83P, Lips. 1833) and other writers suppose it to be the same as the Sanskrit paradesa,, but this word doc.-s

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