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861

PANDIA.

Rpplication." (Savigny, Geschiclite des Rom. Redds im 'Mittelalter, i. p. 14.)

There are numerous manuscripts of the Digest, both in libraries of the Continent and of Great Britain. A list of the MSS. of the Corpus Juris in the libraries of this country, which are princi­ pal^ in the Colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, is given by Dr. Hach in the Zeitschrift (vol. v.). But the MSS. of the Digest generally contain only parts of the work, and are not older than the twelfth century. The MS. called the Florentine is complete and probably as old as the seventh century. It is generally said that it had been kept at Amalfi time out of mind, and was given to the Pisans by Lotharius the Second, after the capture of Amalfi A. d. 1137, as a memorial of his gratitude to them for their aid against Roger the Norman. The Pisans kept it till their city was taken by the Florentines under Gino Capon i a. D. 1406, who carried this precious MS. to Florence where it is still preserved. There is however pretty good evidence that the MS. was not found at Amalfi. Odofredus says, that it was transmitted to Pisa by Justinian, and Bartolus adds, that it always had been, and then was at Pisa. At any rate it is the oldest MS. of the Paridectae. An exact copy of this MS. was published at Florence in 1553, folio, with the title "Digestorum seu Pandectarum Libri Quinquaginta Ex Florentinis Pandectis repraesentati ; Florentiae In Officina Laurentii Tarrentini Ducalis Typographi MDLI1I Cum Summi Pontif. Car. V. Imp. Henrici II Gal- lorum Regis, Eduardi VI Angliae regis, Cosmi Medicis Ducis Florent. II Privilegio." The facts relating to the history of the MS. appear from the dedication of Franciscus Taurellius to Cosmo I., Duke of Florence. Laelio Torelli and his son Francisco superintended the printing of the edition of this splendid work, which is invaluable to a scholar. The orthography of the MS. has been scrupulously observed. Those who cannot consult this work may be satisfied with the edition of the Corpus Juris by Charondas, which the distin­ guished printer of that edition, Christopher Planti- nus, affirms to be as exact a copy of the Florentine edition as it could be made. (Antwerp, 1575). As to the other editions of the Digest, see cor- rus juris. [G. L.]

PANDIA (Trai/Sta), an Attic festival, the real character of which seems to have been a subject of dispute among the ancients themselves ; for ac­cording to the Etymologicum M. (s. v. Tldvfiia ; comp. Phot. s. v.), some derived it from Pandia, who is said to have been a goddess of the moon (this is also Wachsmuth's opinion, ii. p. 485) ; others from the Attic king Pandion ; others again from the Attic tribe Dias, so that the Pandia would have been in the same relation to this tribe as the Panathenaea to Athens: and others from Aitk, and call it a festival of Zeus. Welcker (AescJiyl. Trilog. p. 303) considers it to have been originally a festival of Zeus celebrated by all the At­tic tribes, analogous to the Panathenaea, and thinks that when the confederacy, of which this festival was as it were the central point, became dissolved, the old festival remained, though its character was changed. It was celebrated at Athens in the time •of Demosthenes (c. Mid. p. 517). Taylor in his note on this passage strangely confounds it with the Diasia, though it is well known that this fes­tival was held on the 19th of Mnnychion, while

PANIONIA.

the Pandia took place on the 14th of Elaphebolion, (Compare Suidas and Hesych. s. v. Udvb'ia j Bockh, Alhandl. der Berlin. Akademie, 1818, p. 65, &c.) [L. S.]

PANEGYRIS (Travfiyvpis) signifies a meeting or assembly of a whole people for the purpose of worshipping at a common sanctuary. But the word is used in three ways: — ]. For a meeting of the inhabitants of one particular town and its vicinity [ephesia] ; 2. For a meeting of the in­habitants of a whole district, a province, or of the whole body of people belonging to a particular tribe [delia, pamboeotia, panionia] ; and 3. For great national meetings, as at the Olympic, Pythian, Isthmian,.and Nemean games. Although in all panegyreis which we know, the religious character forms the most prominent feature, other subjects, political discussions and resolutions, as well as a variety of amusements, were not excluded, though they were perhaps more a consequence of the presence of many persons than objects of the meet.ing. As regards their religious character, the paneg3Teis were real festivals in which prayers were performed, sacrifices offered, processions held, &c. The amusements comprehended the whole variety of games, gymnastic and musical contests, and entertainments. Every panegyris, moreover, was made by tradespeople a source of gain, and it may be presumed that such a meeting was never held without a fair, at which all sorts of things were exhibited for sale. (Paus. x. 32. § 9 ; Strab, x. p. 486; Dio Chrysost. Orat. xxvii. p. 528.) In later times, when the love of gain had become stronger than religious feeling, the fairs appear to have become a more prominent characteristic of a panegyris than before; hence the Olympic games are called mercatus Olympiacus or ludi et mercatus Olympiorum. (Justin. xiii. 5; Veil. Pat. i. 8.) Festive orations were also frequently addressed to a panegyris, whence they are called \6yoi iravr,-jvpucoi. The Panegyricus of Isocrates, though it was never delivered, is an imaginary discourse of this kind. In later times any oration in praise of a person was called panegyricus, as that of Pliny on the emperor Trajan.

Each panegyris is treated of in a separate article. For a general account see Wachsmuth, HelL Alt. i. p. 14.9, &c,; Bockh, ad Find. 01. vii. p. 175, &c.; Hermann, Polit. Ant. § 10. [L. S.]

PANELLENIA (iraveX\i]Vio>\ a festival, or perhaps rather a panegyris of all the Greeks, which seems to have been instituted by the emperor Hadrian, with the well-meant but impracticable view of reviving a national spirit among the Greeks, (Philostr. Vit. Soph. ii. 1. 5; Bockh, Corp. Inscrip, i. p. 789, ii. p. 580.) [L. S.]

PANIONIA (7rai/iwj/ia), the great national panegyris of the lonians on mount Mj^cale, where their national god Poseidon Pleliconius had his sanctuary, called the Panionium. (Herod, i. 148 ; Strab. viii. p. 384; Paus. vii. 24. § 4.) One of the principal objects of this national meeting was the common worship of Poseidon, to whom splendid sacrifices were offered on the occasion. (Diodor. xv. 49.) As chief-priest for the conduct of the sacrifices, they always appointed a young man of Priene, with the title of king, and it is mentioned as one of the peculiar superstitions of the lonians on this occasion, that they thought the bull which they sacrificed to be pleasing to the god if it roared at the moment it was killed. (Strab. L c.) But

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