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the fighters fell down on his back on purpose that he might thus ward off the attacks of his antagonist more easily, and this is perhaps the trick called vTTTiao-fAos. The usual mode of making a person fall was to put one foot behind his, and then to push him backward, or to seize him round his body in such a manner that the upper part being the heavier the person lost his balance and fell. Hence the expressions ^aov Xap.Sa.veiv, p.ecro\a-gelV, fiivov aipelv, to, fj.€cra e%€i^, Sia fAyp&v 0-ndv, &c. (Scalig. ad Euseb. Cliron. p. 48.) The annexed woodcut represents two pairs of Pan-
cratiastae ; the one on the right .hand is an example of the ava/cTui/oTraATj, and that on the left of the /ue<7oAage?*>. They are taken from Krause's Gymnastik und Agonistik d. Hellen. Taf. xxi. b. Fig. 35, b. 31, b., whore they are copied respectively from Grivaud, Rec. d. Mon. Ant. vol. i. pi. 20, 21, and Krause, Signorum vet. icones^ tab. 10.
At Rome the pancratium is first mentioned in the games which Caligula gave to the people. (Dion Cass. lix. 13.) After this time it seems to have become extremely popular, and Justinian (Novell. cv. c. 1, provided irayKapirov be, as some suppose, a mistake for iraryKpdriov} made it one of the seven solemnities (TrpooSoi) which the consuls had to provide for the amusement of the people.
Several of the Greek pancratiastae have been immortalised in the epinician odes of Pindar, namely Timodemus of Athens (Nem. ii.), Melissus and Strepsiades of Thebes (Isth. iii. and vi.), Aris-toclides, Oleander and Phylacides of Aegina (Nem. iii., Isth. iv. v. and vi.), and a boy Pytheas of Aegina. (Nem. v.) But besides these the names of a great many other victors in the pancratium are known. (Compare Fellows, Discoveries in Lycia^ p. 313, Lond. 1841.)
(Compare Hieron. Mercurialis, de Arte Gymnas- tica ; J. H. Krause, Die Gymnastik und Agonistik der Hellenen, vol. i. pp. 534—556.) [L. S.]
PANDECTAE or DIGESTA. In the last month of the year a. d. 530, Justinian by a Constitution addressed to Tribonian empowered him to name a commission for the purpose of forming a Code out of the writings of those Jurists who had enjoyed the Jus Respondendi, or, as it is expressed by the Emperor, " antiquorum prudentium quibus auctoritatem conscribendarum interpretandarumque legum sacratissimi principes praebuerunt." The compilation however comprises extracts from some writers of the Republiciin period (Const. Deo Auctore), and from Arcadius Charisius and Her-
mogenianus. Ten years were allowed for the completion of the work. The instructions of the Emperor were, to select what was useful, to omit what was antiquated or superfluous, to avoid unnecessary repetitions, to get rid of contradictions, and to make such other changes as should produce out of the mass of ancient Juristical writings a useful and complete body of law (jus antiquum}. The compilation was to be distributed into Fifty Books and the Books were to be subdivided into Titles (Tituli). The work was to be named Digesta, a Latin term indicating an arrangement of materials, or Pandectae, a Greek word expressive of the comprehensiveness of the work. The name Digesta had been already used by Salvius Julianus for the title of his chief work. The term Pandectae had also been applied to compilations which contained various kinds of matter. (A. Gell. Praef.} It was also declared that no commentaries should be written on this compilation, but permission was given to make Paratitla or references to parallel passages with a short statement of their contents. (Const. Deo Auctore, s. 12.) It was also declared that abbreviations (sigla) should not be used in forming the text of the Digest. The work was completed in three years (17 Cal. Jan. 533) as appears by a Constitution both in Greek and Latin which, confirmed the work and gave to it legal authority. (Co?ist. Tanta, &c., and Ae8&>«:ei/.)
Besides Tribonian, who had the general conduct of the undertaking, sixteen other persons are mentioned as having been employed on the work, among whom were the Professors Dorotheus and Anatolius, who for that purpose had been invited from the law-school of Berytus, and Theophilus and Cratinus who resided at Constantinople. The compilers made use of about two thousand different treatises, which contained above 3,000,000 lines (versus, ort^oi), but the amount retained in the compilation was only 150,000 lines. Tribonian procured this large collection of treatises, many of which had entirely fallen into oblivion, and a list of them was prefixed to the work, pursuant to the instructions of Justinian. (Const- Tanta, &c. s. 16 ) Such a list is at present only found in the Florentine MS. of the Digest, but it is far from being accurate. Still it is probably the Index mentioned in the Constitution, Tanta, &c. (Puchta, 13emer-kungen ueber den Index Florentinus^ in Rhein. Mus. vol. iii. pp. 365—370.)
The work is thus distributed into Fifty Books, which, with the exception of three books, are subdivided into Titles, of which there are said to be 422. The books 30, 31,32, are not divided into Titles, but have one common Title, De Legatis et Fideicommissis ; and the first Title of the 45th book, De Verborum Obligationibus, is realty divided into three parts, though they have not separate Rubricae. Under each Title are placed the extracts from the several jurists, numbered 1, 2, 3, and so on, with the writer's name and the name and division of the work from which the extract is made. These extracts are said to amount to 9123. No name, corresponding to Liber or Titulus, is given to these subdivisions of Tituli which are formed by the extracts from the several writers, but Justinian (Const. Tanta, &c. s. 7) has called them "leges," and though not "laws " in the strict sense of the term, they were in fact "law ;" and in the same sense the Emperor calls the jurists " legislators." (Const. Tanta, &c. s. 16.) The Fifty