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viii. 2.) Songs in praise of Harmodius and Aris-Hogiton appear to have been among the standing customs at the Panathenaea. Musical contests in singing and in playing the flute and the cithara were not introduced until the time of Pericles ; they were held in the Odeum. (Plut. Pericl. 13.) The first who gained the victory in these contests was Phrynis, in 01. 81. 1. (Schol. ad Aristoph. Nub. 971 ; Marm. Par. Ep. 64.) The prize for the victors in the musical contests was, as in the gymnastic contests, a vase, but with an additional chaplet of olive branches. (Suid. s, v. TlavaQfocua.) Cyclic choruses and other kinds :of dances were also performed at the Panathenaea (Lys. de Muner. accept, p. 161), and the pyrrhic dance in armour is expressly mentioned. (Aristoph. Nub-. 988, with the Schol.) Of the discussions of philosophers and orators at the Panathenaea we still possess two specimens, the ^0705 TiavaQ7]vaiK6s of Isocrates, and that of Aristides. Herodotus is said to have recited his history to the Athenians at the Panathenaea. The management of the games and contests was entrusted to persons called d0A,o06Tcu, whose number was ten, one being-taken from every tribe. Their office lasted from one great Panathenaic festival to the other. (Pollux, viii. 8. 6.) It was formerly believed, on the statement of Diogenes Laertitis (iii. 56 ; compare Suidas, s. v. TcrpaXoyia), that dramatic representations also took place at the Panathenaea, but this mistake has been clearly refuted by Bbckh. (Grace. Traff. Princip. p. 207.)
The lampadephoria or torch-race of the Panathenaea has been confounded by many writers, and even by Wachsmuth (Hell. Alt. ii. 2. p. 246 ; ii. p. 573, 2d ed.), with that of the Bendideia. On what day it was held, and in what relation it stood to the other contests, is unknown, though it is clear that it must have taken place in the evening. It has been supposed by some writers that the lampadephoria took place only at the great Panathenaea, but this rests upon the feeble testimony of Libanius (Argum. ad Demosth. Mid. p. 510), while all other writers who mention this lampadephoria, speak of it as a part of the Panathenaea in general, without the epithet lj.syd\a, which is itself a sufficient proof that it was common to both festivals. The same is implied in a statement of the author ,qf -the Etymologicum Magnum (s. v. Kepa[.i€iic6s). The prize of the victor in the lampadephoria -was probably the lampas itself, which he dedicated to Hermes. (Bockh, Corp. Insoipt. i. n. 243, 250.)
It is impossible to determine the exact order in which the solemnities took place. We may, however, believe that those parts which were the most ancient preceded those which were of later introduction. Another assistance in this respect are the sculptures of the Parthenon (now in the British Museum), in which a series of the solemnities of the Panathenaea is represented in the great procession. But they neither represent all the solemnities— for the lampadephoria and the gymnastic contests are not represented—nor can it be supposed that the artists should have sacrificed beauty and symmetry merely to give the solemnities in precisely the same order as they succeeded one another at the festival. In fact we see in these sculptures the flute and cithara players represented as preceding the chariots and men on horseback, though the contests in chariot and horse racing
probably preceded the musical contests. Bat we may infer from the analogy of other great festivals that the solemnities commenced with sacrifices. The sacrifices at the Panathenaea were very munificent ; for each town of Attica, as well as every colony of Athens, and, during the time of her greatness, every subject town, had to contribute to this sacrifice by sending one bull each. (Schol. Aristoph. Nub. 385.) The meat of the victims appears to have been distributed among the people ; but before the feasting commenced, the public herald prayed for the welfare and prosperity of the republic. After the battle of Marathon the Plataeans were included in this prayer. (Herod, vi. 111.)
The chief solemnity of the great Panathenaea was the magnificent procession to the temple of Athena Polias, which, as stated above, probably took place on the last day of the festive season. The opinion of Creuzer (Symbol, ii. p. 810) that this procession also took place at the lesser Panathenaea, is opposed to all ancient authorities with the exception of the Scholiasts on Plato (Republ. init.) and on Aristophanes (Equit. 566), and these scholiasts are evidently in utter confusion about the whole matter. The whole of this procession is represented in the frieze of the Parthenon, the work of Phidias and his disciples. The description and explanation of this magnificent work of art, and of the procession it represents, would lead us too far. (See Stuart, Antiq. of Athens, vol. ii. ; Leake, Topogr. of Athens, p. 215, &c. ; C. 0. Miiller, Ancient Art and its Rein. §118 ; H. A, Miiller, Panath. p. 98, &c.) The chief object of this procession was to carry the peplus of the goddess to her temple. It was a crocus-coloured garment for the goddess, and made by maidens, called epyaa-r'ivai. (Hesych. s. v. • compare ar-rhephoria.) Init were woven Enceladus and the giants, as they were conquered by the goddess. (Eurip. Hecub. 466' ; Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. 566 ; Suid. s. v. Heir\os ; Virg. Cir. 29, &c. ; compare Plat. Euthyd. p. 6.) Proclus (ad Plat. Tim.} says that the figures on the peplus represented the Olympic gods conquering the giants, and this indeed is the subject represented on a peplus worn by an Athena preserved in the Museum of Dresden. On one occasion in later times, when the Athenians overwhelmed Demetrius and Antigonus with their flatteries., they also decreed that their images, along with those of the gods, should be woven into the peplus. (Plut. Demetr. 10.) The peplus was not carried to the temple by men but was suspended from the mast of a ship (Schol. Horn. II. v. 734 ; Philostr. Vit. Soph. i. 5. p. 550; compare Bockh, Graec. Trag. Princ. p. 193 ; Schol. ad Aristoph. Pea1, 418) ; and this ship, which was at other times kept near the Areiopagua (Pans. i. 29. § 1), was moved along on land, it is said, by subterraneoits machines. What these machines may have been is involved in utter obscurity. The procession proceeded from the Cerameicus, near a monument called Leocorium (Thucyd. i. 20), to the temple of Deineter at Eleusis, and thence along the Pelasgic wall and the temple of Apollo Pythins to the Pnyx, and thence to the Acropolis, where the statue of Minerva Polias was adorned with the peplus.
In this procession nearly the whole population of Attica appears to have taken part, either on foot, on horseback, or in chariots, as may be seen in the frieze of the Parthenon,-. Aged men -'earned oiiv,e