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down to the knees or a little lower, and hung loosely over the shoulders, being fastened across the chest by a clasp. A foolish controversy has arisen among antiquaries with regard to the posi­tion of this clasp, some asserting that it rested on the right shoulder, others on the left, both parties appealing to ancient statues and sculptures in sup­port of their several opinions. It is evident from the nature of the garment, as represented in the annexed illustrations, that the buckle must have shifted from place to place according to the move­ments of the wearer ; accordingly, in the following cut, which contains two figures from Trajan's column,

one representing an officer, the other the emperor with a tunic and fringed paludamentum, we ob­serve the clasp on the right shoulder, and this would manifestly be its usual position when the cloak was not used for warmth, for thus the right


hand and arm would be free and unembarrassed ; but in the preceding cut, copied from the Raccolta Maffei, representing also a Roman emperor, we perceive that the clasp is on the left shoulder ; while in the cut below, the noble head of a warrior from the great Mosaic of Pompeii, we see the paludamentum flying back in the charge, and the clasp nearly in front. It may be said that the last is a Grecian figure ; but this, if true, is of no im­portance, since the chlamys and the paludamentum were essentially, if not absolutely, the same. Nonius Marcellus considers the two terms synonymous, and Tacitus (Ann. xii. 56) tells how the splendid naumachia exhibited by Claudius was viewed by Agrippina dressed cUamyde aurata, while Pliny (H. N. xxxiii. 3) and Dion Cassius (lx. 33) in narrating the same story use respectively the ex­pressions paludamento auroteodili^ and

The colour of the paludamentum was commonly white or purple, and hence it was marked and re­ membered that Crassus on the morning of the fatal battle of Carrhae went forth in a dark-coloured mantle. (Val. Max. i. 6. § 11 ; compare Plin. H. N. xxii. 1 ; Hirtius, de bello Africano, c. 57.) [W. R.]

PALUS, a pole or stake, was used in the mili­tary exercises of the Romans. It was stuck into the ground, and the tirones had to attack it as if it had been a real enemy ; hence this kind of exer­cise is sometimes called Palaria. (Veget. i. 11). Juvenal (vi. 247) alludes to it when he says, " Quis non vidit vulnera pali ? " and Martial (vii. 32. 8) speaks of it tinder the name of stipes, " Aut nudi stipitis ictus hebes." (Becker,#«/fes,i. p. 278.) PAMBOEO'TIA (-jra^ot^ria), a festive pane-gyris of all the Boeotians, which the grammarians compare with the Panathenaea of the Atticans, and' the Panionia of the lonians. The principal object of the meeting was the common worship of Athena Itonia, who had a temple in the neigh­bourhood of Coronea, near which the panegyris was held. (Strabo, ix. p. 411 ; Pans. ix. 34. § 1.) From Polybius (iv. 3, ix. 34) it appears that during this national festival no war was allowed to be carried on, and that in case of a war a truce was always concluded. This panegyris is also men­tioned by Plutarch. (Aniat. Narrat. p. 774, f.) It is a disputed point whether the Pamboeotia had anything to do with the political constitution of ' Boeotia, or with the relation of its several towns to Thebes ; but if so, it can have been only pre­vious to the time when Thebes had obtained the undisputed supremacy in Boeotia. The question is discussed in Sainte Croix, Des Gouvernements fe-derat. p. 211, &c.; Raoul-Rochette, Sur la Forme

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