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tened, like that of the Greeks, by means of a brooch, or with a large thorn as a substitute for a brooch. (Tacit. Germ. 17 ; Strabo, iv. 4. 3.) The-Gauls wore in summer one which was striped and chequered, so as to agree exactly with the plaid which still distinguishes their Scottish descendants ; m winter it was thick and much more simple in colour and pattern. (Diod. Sic. v. 30.) The Greeks and Romans also- wore different pallia in summer and in winter. The thin pallium made for summer wear was called A??8os, dim. XySdpiov (Aristoph. Aves, 713—717) and ffirsipov dim. ffireipiov (Horn. Od. ii. 102, vi. 179 ; Xen. Hist. Gr. iv. 5. § 4) in contradistinction from the warm pallium with a long nap, which was worn in winter (laenciy Mart, xiv. 136 ; xAcu/'a, Moeris, s. v.; Horn. //. xvi. 224, Od. xiv. 529 ; Pint, de Aud. p. 73, ed. Stepli, ; a^Acai/di, Callim. Hymn, in Dian. 115). This-distinction in dress was, however, practised only by those who could afford it. Socrates wore the same Dallium both in summer and winter. (Xen. Mem. I. 6. § 2.)
One kind of blanket was worn by boys, another by men (rb TratSi/cb*/, rb avopetov fytcmoz/, Plut. de Aud. init.). Women wore this garment as well as men. " Phocion's wife," says Aelian (V«H. vii. 9)," wore Phocion's- pallium : " but Xanthippe, as related by the same author (vii. 10), would not wear that of her husband Socrates. (See also Horn. Od. v. 229, 230, x. 542, 543 ; Plant. Men. iv. 2. 26 ; Herod, v. 87.) When the means were not wanting, women wore pallia, which were in general smaller, finer, and of more splendid and beautiful colours than those of men (S-oi^rta avSpeTa, Aristoph. Eccles. 26, 75, 333), although men also sometimes displayed their fondness for dress by adopting in these respects the female costume. Thus Alcibiades was distinguished by his purple pallium which trailed upon the ground (Plut. Alcib. pp. 350, 362, ed. Steph.) ; for a train was one of the ornaments of Grecian as well as Oriental dress (/jttemW e'A£ejs, Plato, Alcib: i. p. 341, ed. Bekker ; Ovid. Met. xi. 166 ; Quintil. xi. 3), the general rule being that the upper garment should reach the knee, but not the ground. (Aelian, V. H. xi. 10 ; Theophrast. Char. 4.)
Philosophers wore a coarse and cheap pallium, which from being exposed to much wear was called Tpi§<av and Tpig&viov. (Aristoph. Plitt. 897 ; A then. v. p. 211, e ; Themist. Orat. x. p. 155, ed. Dindorf ; palKastrum, Apul. Florid, i.) The same was Avorn also by poor persons (Isaeus, de Die. p. 94, ed. Reiske ; Polyaen. Strat. vii. 35), by the Spartans (Athen. xii. p. 535, e ; Aelian, V. H. vii. 13), and in a later age by monks and hermits ((paibv Tpig&viov, Synes. Epist. 147 ; sagum rusti-citm, Hieron. Vita Hilar.}. These blanketeers (jpigwvofyopoi) Palladii, Hist. Laus. in vita Serap.} often went without a tunic, and they sometimes supplied its place by the greater size of their pallium. It is recorded of the philosopher Antisthenes, that " he first doubled his pallium " (Diog. Lae'rt. vi. 6, 13), in which contrivance he was followed by his brother Cynics (Brunck, Anal. ii. 22 ; Hor. Epist. i. 7. 25), and especially by Diogenes, who also slept and died in it, and who according to some was the first inventor of this fashion. (Diog. Laert. vi. 22, 77.)- The large pallium, thus used, was called SnrXo'LS (diplois, Isid. Hisp. Orig. xix. 24), and also exomis, because, being worn without the fibula, it left the right shoulder bare, as
seen in the preceding figure of Polynices, and in the bas-relief in Dodwell's Tour already referred to (Plaut. Mil. iv. 4. 43 ; Aelian, V. H. ix. 34) ; and, when a girdle was added round the waist, it approached still more to the appearance of the single-sleeved tunic, the use of which it superseded.
Under the Roman republic and the early Em perors, the toga was worn by men instead of the pallium. They were proud of this distinction, and therefore considered that to be palliatus or sagatus instead of being togatus indicated an affectation of Grecian or- even barbarian manners. (Grueco pallio amictus, Plin> Epist. iv. 11; Graeci palliati, Plaut. Cure. ii. 3. 9 ; Cic. Phil. v. 5, xiv. 1 ; Sueton. Jul. 48 ; Val. Max. ii. 6. § 10.) Caecina, on his .return from the norith of Europe, offended the Romans (togatos) by addressing them in a plaid (versicolore sagulo) and trowsers. [braccae.]
(Tacit. Hist. ii..20.) [J. Y.J
PALMIPES* i. e. pes et palmus, a Roman measure of length, equal to a foot and a palm ; or a foot and a quarter, or 15 inches, or 20 digits. (Plin. //. N. xvii. 20. s. 32;; Vitruv. v. 6). [P.S.J
PALMUS, properly the width of the open hand, or,, more exactly, of the four fingers, was used by the Romans for two different measures of length, namely, as the translation of the Greek TraAouo-TT?, or S&pov in old Greek, and o-irida^ respectively. In the former sense it is equal to 4 digits, or 3 inches, or l-4th of a foot, or l-6th of the cubit. [mensura, p. 751, b.] Jerome (in Ezeck. 40) expressly states that this was its proper meaning, but that the Greek ffiriOa^ waa also called by some palmus; or, for the sake of dis tinction, palina ; in which sense it would be 3-4ths of a foot. Hence some writers distinguish, in the old Roman metrical system, a palmus major of 9 inches, and a palinus minor of 3 inches, and they suppose that the former is referred to by Varro (R. R. iii. 7). Ideler has, however, shown that this supposition, is groundless, that Varro refers to the common palm of 4 digits (3 inches), and the larger palm only occurs in later Roman writers, (Uebsr die L'dngen und Flackenmasse der Alien? p. 129). From this large palmus of 9 inches the modern Roman palmo isjderived. [P. S.]
PALUDAMENTUM, according to Varro (L.L. vii. 37) and Festus (s.v.)9 originally signified any military decoration ; but the word is always used to denote the cloak worn by a Roman general commanding an army, his principal officers and personal attendants, in contradistinction to the sagum [sagum] of the common soldiers and the toga or garb of peace. It was the practice for a Roman magistrate after he had received the impe-rium from the Comitia Curiata and offered up his vows in the Capitol, to march out of the city arrayed in the paludamentum (exire paludatus, Cic. ad Fam. viii. 10) attended by his lictors in similar attire (paludatis Iictoribus9 Liv. xli. 10, xiv. 39), nor could he again enter the gates until he had formally divested himself of this emblem of military power, a ceremony considered so solemn and so indispensable that even the emperors observed it. (Tacit. Hist. ii. 89 ; compare Sueton. Vitell. c. 11.) Hence Cicero declared that Verres had sinned " contra auspicia, contra omnes divinas et humanas reli-giones," because, after leaving the city in his paludamentum (cum paludatus escisset\ he stole back in a litter to visit his mistress. (In Verr. v* 13.)
The paludamentum Avas open in front, reached
3 i 3