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PALLIUM.

his name woven in the squares (tesserae, ir in golden letters. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 9. s. 36. 2.) An endless variety was produced by interweaving sprigs or flowers in the woof (&y6€cri 7re7ro(/aA-jue'z-w, Plat. Republ. viii. p. 401, ed. Bekker). By the sarns process carried to a higher degree of complexity and refinement, whole figures and even historical or mythological subjects were in­troduced, and in this state of advancement the weaving of pallia was the elegant and worthy em­ployment of females of the first distinction (Horn. //. iii. 125 — 128, xxii. 440, 441), and of Athena, the inventress of the art, herself. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 721 — 768.) The greatest splendour was im­parted by the use of gold thread. (Virg. Aen. iv. 262—264 ; Plin. //. A", viii. 48, xxxiii. 1 9 ; Auson. ' Epig. 37 ; Themist. Oral. 21 ; Q. Curt. iii. 3. 17.) Homer represents Penelope weaving a purple blanket for Ulysses, which also displayed a beau­tiful hunting-piece wrought in gold. (Od. xix. 225—235.) The epithet 8forAa|, which is com­monly applied by the poets to these figured palls, probably denoted that they were made on the principle of a quilt or a Scotch carpet, in which two cloths of different colours are so interlaced as to form one double cloth, which displays a pattern of any kind according to the fancy of the artist.

Although pallia were finished for use without the intervention of the tailor, they were sub­mitted to the embroiderer (Phrygio j Tror/aAr^s, 7r\ovf.Lapi6s : Aesch. c. Timarcfi. p. 118, ed. Reiske ; Schol. ad loc.} ; and still more commonly to the fuller [fullo], who received them both when they were new from the loom, and when they were sullied through use. Hence it was a re­commendation of this article of attire to be well-trodden (ei)<TTJ7rTOj/, Apollon. Rhod. ii. 30) and well washed (euTrAwes, Horn. Od. viii. 425). The men who performed the operation are called ol TrAwJjs, i. e. the washers, in an inscription found in the stadium at Athens. Another appellation which they bore, viz. ol orri^eTs, the treaders (Schol. in A poll. Rhod. 1. c.), is well illustrated by the woodcut, representing them at their work, in p. 552.

Considering pallium and palla, l^driov and (papos, as generic terms, we find specific terms included under them, and denoting distinctions which depended on the materials of which the cloth was made. Among the Greeks and Romans by far the most common material was wool. (Plant. Mil. iii. 1. 93 ; Xen. Oecon. vii. 36 ; Theocrit. /. c.) The garment made of it (laneum pallium, (.lie. de Nat. Dear. iii. 35) was called (from the root of lana, wool), in Latin laena, in Greek X\cuva. : and as the garment varied, not only in colour and ornament, but also in fineness, in close­ness of texture (i/urncs,^ AeTTTor^ras, Aelian, V.H. iv. 3), and in size, some of these differences were expressed by the diminutives of xAcuVa, such as ^Aat^iov, xAca/h (Herod, iii. 139 ; Athen. xii. pp. 545, a, 548, a, 553, a), xAaviSioy (Herod, i. 195, compared with Strabo, xvi. 1. § 20 ; Plut. Symp. •ProbL vi. 6 ; . Dioiiys. Ant. Rom. vii. 9), %\a.vi<r-tuov (Aristoph. Acham. 518 ; Aesch. c. TimarcL

p. 142; Alciphron, i. 38), and (Aristoph. Pa-x, 1002.) In like manner we find the pallium not only designated by epithets added to the general terms in order to denote that it was made of flax, e.g. i^cltlov Xivovv, X(v(>io yeoTrAura (Orpheus, de Lapid. 702), pallium lineum

PALLIUM. 851

(Isid. Hisp. Orig. xix. 25), but also distinguished by the specific terms linteum^ linteamen; sindon (Mart. Epig. iv. 12) ; givo&v (Herod, ii. 86. ; Mark, xiv. 51, 52) ; and its diminutive (nvftoviov. (Palladii. Vita Serap.} A coarse linen pallium was also called $&<ru>v (Pollux, vii. c. 16), and a fine one bQ6vt], dim. bQ6viov. (Horn. //. iii. 141, xviii, 595 ; Brunck, Anal. iii. 81.) These specific terms are no doubt of Egyptian origin, having been in­troduced among the Hebrews, the Greeks, and the Romans, together with the articles of merchan­dize to which they were applied. On the same principle a cotton pallium is called pal!a carlasea (Prudent. Psychom. 186, 187), and a silk shawl is denominated pallium Sericum (Stat. Sylv* iii. 4. 89), and bQ6vioi^f]piic6v. (Arrian,/'er. Mar.Eryth,. pp. 164, 170, 173, 177, ed. Blancardi.)

The following instances of the application of pallia to the purposes of common life, show that it is an error to translate the word in all cases by " cloak " or " garment," and although in some of these cases the application may have been accidental, it serves not the less on that account to demonstrate the form and properties of the thing spoken of, and the true meaning of the various names by which it was called.

I. They were used to spread over beds and couches, and to cover the body during sleep (l/jt.d~ tiqv, Aelian, V. H. viii. 7, xii. 1; Deut. xxiv. 13 ; /,uaTi<rjubs, Theophrast. Char. 23 ; tydpos, Soph. Track. 916, compare 537 ; %A&iVa, Theocrit. xviii. 19, xxiv. 25 ; Horn. Od. xiv. 500—521, xvii. 86, 179,* xx. 4, 95, 143 ; Hymn, in Yen. 159— 184 ; -xXavicrtaov, Alciphron, I.e.; pallium, Juv. \\. 202 ; Spartian, Hadr. 22). In many of these cases it is to be observed, that the same pallium which was worn as a garment by day served to sleep in at night, in exact agreement with the practice which to the present day prevails among the Bedouin Arabs, who constantly use their large hvkes for both purposes. [lectus ; lodix ; tapes.]

II. They were spread on the ground and used for carpets. Clitus, the friend of Alexander, when he held a levee, appeared walking eVt noptyvp&v i/uiaTicw. (Athen. xii. p. 539, c.) This was an affectation of Eastern luxury. When the people at Jerusalem spread their hykes upon the ground (as recorded in St. Matt. xxi. 8 ; St. Mark, xi. 8 ; St. Luke, xix. 36) thev intended therebv to reco«--

J s */ »> O

nise Jesus as a king. [tapes.]

III. They were hung over doors (Prudent, adv. Sym. ii. 726), and used as awnings or curtains. (Athen. xii. p. 518, a.)

IV. At the bath, persons wiped and rubbed

themselves not only with linen sheets (linteis\ but

with very soft blankets (pal/iis esc mollissiuia lana

factis, Petron. Sat. 28). The coarse linen cloth

used for this purpose was called sabanum (adSavov).

V. Agamemnon (Horn. II. viii. 221) holds in his hand " a great purple (papos " to serve as a banner floating in the air.

VI. Pallia, especially of linen and cotton, were used for sails (ty&ffocwzs^ Lycophrori, v. 26 ; \iv6-icpoKov (/>apos, Eurip.i/jTec. 1080 ; Horn. Od. v. 258).

VII. When Antony's ships were on fire, his soldiers, having failed to extinguish it by water, which they could not obtain in sufficient quantity, threw upon it their thick blankets (i/xarm avrwi* to, 7ra%ea, Dion Cass. 1. 34).

VIII. Thick coarse blankets, which had not

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