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e. v. Parilibus; Cic. de Divin. ii. 47 ; Varro, de Re Rust. ii. 1 ; Plin. H. N. xviii. 66) ; and some of the rites customary in later times were said to have been first performed by Romulus when he fixed the pomoerium. (Dionys. I. e.) Ovid (Fast. iv. 731, &c.) gives a description of the rites of the Palilia, which clearly shows that he regarded it as a shepherd-festival, such as it must originally have been when the Romans were real shepherds and husbandmen., and as it must have continued to be among country-people in his own time, as is ex­pressly stated by Dionysius ; for in the city itself it must have lost its original character, and have been regarded only as the dies natalitius of Rome. The connection, however, between these two characters of the festival is manifest, as the founders of the city were, as it were, the kings of shepherds, and the founders of a religion suited to shepherds.

The first part of the solemnities, as described by Ovid, was a public purification by fire and smoke. The things burnt in order to produce this purifying smoke were the blood of the Oc­tober-horse^ the ashes of the calves sacrificed at the festival of Ceres, and the shells of beans. The people were also sprinkled with water ; they washed their hands in spring-water, and drank milk mixed with must. (Ovid. Fast. 1. c. ; compare Propert. iv. 1. 20.) As regards the October-horse (equus October} it must be observed that in early times no bloody sacrifice was allowed to be offered at the Palilia, and the blood of the October-horse, mentioned above, was the blood which had dropped from the tail of the horse sacrificed in the month of October to Mars in the Campus Martius. This blood was preserved by the Vestal virgins in the temple of Vesta for the purpose of being used at the Palilia. (Solin. p. 2, d ; Fest. s. v. October equus j Prut. Romul. 12.) When towards the evening the shepherds had fed their flocks, laurel-branches were used as brooms for cleaning the stables, and for sprinkling water through them, and lastly the stables were adorned with laurel-boughs. Hereupon the shepherds burnt pulphur, rosemary, fir-wood, and incense, and made the smoke pass through the stables to purify them ; the flocks themselves were likewise puri­fied by this smoke. The sacrifices which were offered on this day consisted of cakes, millet, milk, and other kinds of eatables. The shepherds then offered a prayer to Pales. After these solemn rites were over, the cheerful part of the festival began: bonfires were made of heaps of hay and straw, and under the sounds of cymbals and flutes the sheep were again purified by being compelled to run three times through the fire, and the shep­herds themselves did the same. The festival was concluded by a feast in the open air, at which the people sat or lay upon benches of turf, and drank plentifully. (Tibull. ii. 5. 87, &c. ; compare Pro-pert, iv. 4. 75.)

In the city of Rome the festival must, at least in later times, have been celebrated in a different manner ; its character of a shepherd-festival was forgotten, and it was merely looked upon as the day on which Rome had been built, and was cele­brated as such with great rejoicings. (Athen. viii. p. 361.) In the reign of Caligula it was decreed that the day, on which this emperor had come to the throne, should be celebrated under the name of Palilia, as if the empire had been revived by


him, and had commenced its second existence, (Suet. Calig. 16.) Athenaeus (I. c.) says, that before his time the name Palilia had been changed into JRomana ('Pw/^a?a). Whether this change of name was occasioned by the decree in tho reign of Caligula just mentioned, is unknown. (Comp. Hartung, Die Relig. der Romer, vol. ii. p. 150, &c.) [L. S.J


PALLA. [pallium.]

PALLACE (TraAAaKTJ). [concubina,]

PALLIATA FABULA. [comobdia, p. 346.]

PALLIUM, dim. PALLIOLUM, j>oe*. PAL-LA (Plaut. Men. ii. 3. 41—47 ; Ovid. Amor. iii. 1. 12, iii. 2. 25) (ifj-drioy^ dim. 1/j.ari^ioy ; Ion. and poet. <papos). The English cloak, though com­monly adopted as the proper translation of these terms, conveys no accurate conception of the form, material, or use of that which they denoted. The article designated by them was always a rectan­gular piece of cloth, exactly, or at least nearly, square (rerpdycava if-iana, Posidonius ap. Athen. v. p. 213 ; quadrangulus, Tertull. de Pallio, 1). Hence it could easily be divided without loss or waste into four parts. (John, xix. 23.) It was indeed used in the very form in which it was taken from the loom [TELa], being made entirely by the weaver (rb l^dnov iKprjvat, Plat. Charm. pp. 86, 98. ed. Heindorf; Hipp. Min. p. 210, eel. Bekker), without any aid from the tailor except to repair (sarcire, aice'ta'dai) the injuries which it sustained by time. Although it was often orna­mented, more especially among the northern na­tions of Europe, with a fringe [fimbriae], yet this was commonly of the same piece with the pallium itself. Also whatever additional richness and beauty it received from the art of the dyer, was bestowed upon it before its materials were woven into cloth or even spun into thread. Most commonly it was used without having undergone any process of this kind. The raw material, such as wool, flax, or cotton, was manufactured in its natural state, and hence blankets and sheets were commonly white (Aev/ca /juc^na, Artemidor. ii. 3), although from the same cause brown, drab, and grey were also prevailing colours. The more splendid and elegant tints were produced by the application of the murex (muricata, conchyliaia, purpurea^ vestis; Tropfyvpovv, aXovpyvi i{j.dria, He-raclides Pont. ap. Athen. xii. p. 512), the kermes (coccineus^ koickivov), the argol (fucatus), and the saffron (croceus, ttpoKvrov}. [crocota.] Pale green was also worn (6[j.(pdicwovt Pollux, Onom. vii. 56). Black and grey pallia were either made from the wool of black sheep (Theocrit. v. 98) or were the result of the art of the dyer. They were worn in mourning (jUeAai/a 1/j.dria, Xen. Hist. Gr. i. 7. § 8 ; Artemidor. /. c.; (fjaiav eV0-/}ra, Inscrip­tion in Fellows1,* Journal^ 1838, p. 31), and by sorceresses. (Hor. Sat. i. 8. 23.) The pallium of one colour (I§i6xpoov ip.ct.Tiov, literally " the self-coloured," Artem. L c,} was distinguished from the variegated (iroiKiXov) ; and of this latter class the simplest kinds were the striped (pa£3a>roV, Xen. Cyrop. viii. 8. § 8), in which the effect was pro­duced by inserting alternately a woof of different colours, and the check or plaid (scutuiatum, tcsse-laium\ in which the same colours were made to alternate in the warp also. Zeuxis, the painter, exhibited at the Olympic games a plaid having

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